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Full text of "Stead's Review"

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April 15, 1 goo. 



The Review of Reviews. 



4i3 




" Pittsburg Press."] 



PERFECT 




Aromatic or Dark, is the Best. 




The WILLIAMS' TYPl WRITER 

Troopship "Aberdeen," 
Dear Sir, Port Melbourne, Nor. 8, 1899. 

I have to compliment you on the excellent writing machine 
supplied to our detachment ; its compactness and strength make it 
specially suitable for use on active service. The work is most satis- 
factory fnd ell our detachment orders are being type-written. — Youm 
truly, J. G. LEGGE, Captain N. S. Wales Infantry. 

Mr. HocKaday, the Williams' Typewriter Agency, Sydney. 

The WILLIAMS' was used by the British forces throughout th« 

Chitral campaign and by General Miles during the Cuban campaign. 

Over 80 Williams' machines are used by the U. 8. Navy. The large 

P. and 0. Boats are equipped with the Williams'. 



Williams' Typewriter Agency, 89 Pitt St., Sydney. 



For mutual advantage »i»hen you write to an advertiser please mention the Review of Reviews 



4H 



The Review of Reviews. 



is. 1900. 




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F. LAS8ETTER 6t CO., Agents. 




April 15, 1900. 



The Review of Reviews. 



415 




" Weatminster Gazette."] 

MR. RHODES, I PRESUME!' 



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4'6 The Review of Reviews. April 15, 1900. 



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For mutual advantage when you write to an advertiser please mention 'he Review of Ravlews. 



April 15, 1 goo. 



The Review of Reviews. 



41/ 



HEARNE'S BRONCHITIS CURE, 

. . . THE FAMOUS REMEDY FOE . . . 

Coughs, Bronchitis, Asthma and Consumption, 

Has the Largest Sale of Any Chest Medicine in Australia. 



Those who have taken this medicine are amazed at its wonderful influence. Sufferers from any form of 
Bronchitis, Cough, Difficulty of Breathing:, Hoarseness, Pain or Soreness in the 
Chest, experience delightful and immediate relief, and to those who are subject to Colds on the Chest it is 
*ivaluable, as it effects a complete cure. It is most comforting in allaying Irritation in the Throat and giving 
Strength to the Voice, and it neither allows a Cough or Asthma to become chronic nor 
Consumption to develop. Consumption has never been known to exist where "Coughs" have beam 
properly treated with this medicine. No house should be without it, as, taken at the beginning, a dose is generally 
sufficient, and a complete cure is certain. 

Beware of "Coughs"!! Eemember that every disease has its commencement, and Consumption it bo 
•sception to this rule. 



BAD COUGHS. 



THREE CASES COMPLETELY CURED BY ONE 
BOTTLE OF HEARNE'S BRONCHITIS CURE. 



SEVERE COLD, WITH LOSS OF VOICE, CURED 
BY HALF A BOTTLE. 



months — always went in the 'bus — aa walking caused 
me such pain and distress in the chest. I alwajns 
walk now, and never feel it, and I am stronger than 
I have been for years. I thank my son for his great 
kindness in sending the medicine,/ and am, dear sir, — 
Yours very truly, M. MORTIMER. 



A SUPPLY SENT TO A RELATIVE IN ENGLAND. 



Llenwellyn, Katunga, Victoria. 
Mr. Hearne, 

Dear Sir, — I am very much pleased with the effects 
of your Bronchitis Cure. Last winter three of my 
children had very bad coughs, and one bottle cured the 
three of them. The housemaid also had such a severe 
cold that she entirely lost her voice, but half a bottle 
cured her. I always keep it in the house now, and re- 
commend it to anyone requiring medicine of that kind. 

I now want you to send at once four bottles to 
England to my mother, who is suffering greatly from 
'bronchitis. The address is enclosed. — Yours gratefully, 

JOHN S. MORTIMER. 



Extract from a letter, since written by the same 
lady to her son, Mr. John S. Mortimer, Llenwel- 
lyn, Katunga, Victoria. 

HER DAUGHTER HAD BEEN ILL. 



SPITTING UP BLOOD. 



THE DOCTOR SAID NOTHING MORE COULD BE 
DONE. 



The relative in England, who is eighty years old, also 
Cured by Hearne's Bronchitis Cure. 

WAS A GREAT SUFFERER. 



HAD NOT WALKED FOR TWELVE MONTHS. 



ALWAYS WALKS NOW, AND IS QUITE WELL. 



FEELS STRONGER THAN SHE HAS DONE FOR 
YEARS. 



8 Watson-street, Burton-on-Trent, 
Staffordshire, England. 
Mr. W. G. Hearne, Geelong, 

Dear Sir, — Your letter and Bronchitis Cure to hand 
quite safe. I am sure you will be glad to know 
that your Bronchitis Cure has quite cured me. I 
-was very glad when it came, as 1 was suffering from 
a severe attack of bronchitis at the time it arrived. 
I had sent for my own doctor, but had not had one 
night's rest for a week. I started taking the Bron- 
chitis Cure three times a day, as directed, and was 
very much eased at once. At the end of a week I 
only took it twice a day, and then only every night 
for a week, as I was so much better when, thanks to 
the Lord for adding His blessing, I was quite well, 
«nd walked into town and back without feeling any 
fatigue. I had not done that previously for twelve 

Prepared only, and sold wholesale and retail, by the Proprietor, W. G. Hearne, Chemist, Geelong, Victoria. Small 
Sizes, 2/6 ; large, 4/6. Sold by Chemists and Medicine Vendors. Forwarded by post to any address 
when not obtainable locally. 



CURED BY HEARNE'S BRONCHITIS CURE. 

The extract runs as follows: — As for myself, thank 
the Lord I am feeling stronger than I have for 
years. I had an attack of bronchitis in November, 
but Hearne's Bronchitis Cure was again successful. I 
feel quite well, and walk into town feeling quite strong. 

I must ask you to send me six bottles more of the 
medicine, as I wish to have a supply in the house. I 
have tried to get it made up here, and let my chemist 
have a bottle to see what he could do. He tells me 
this week he can make nothing out of it; he never 
saw anything like it before, so there is only one thing 
for me to do — to send for more. I have never kept in 
bed one day since I commenced to take it; I used 
to be in bed a fortnight at a time always, and after 
that for months I was as weak as I could possibly 
be, and was always taking cod liver oil, so you will see 
at once it is quite worth while sending for it such a 
long distance. Something more I must tell you. 
Charlotte has been very ill since I wrote you. Her 
cough was so bad. She never had a night's rest, 
and was spitting up blood very much. The doctor told 
her husband that there was nothing more he could do 
for her, so on the Sunday I sent her half a bottle of the 
Bronchitis Cure, and told her to try it, and if she did 
not use it not to waste it, but send it back again. She 
had such confidence in her doctor that I thought she 
would not try it. On the Wednesday I sent over 
again, and she was much better, the night's rest was 
very good, and cough and bleeding from the lungs 
better. She sent for another half bottle, and on the 
following Sunday sent over to say that she was quite 
cured, and did not require any more medicine. So yow 
see what good it has done, and she wishes to have some 
with my next supply. 



4i8 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



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3 

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MEMORY 



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FROH TESTIHONIALS. 



Rev. H. E. MERRIMAN, 
"Wesleyan Minister, Victoria :- 



" I am well acquainted with three modem systems of 
memory, and some of older origin. . . . This fact, 
together with the fulness and completeness of the de- 
tails of your System make it, in my opinion, the best 
ever brought before the public. ... I most heartily 
recommend your system as easy, natural, and thoroughly 
practical." 



Mr. A. H. BROWN, 

Constitution Hill, Tasmania : — 



Mr. C. T. DAVIS, 
Bay View, Dunedin :- 



" History with its dates was always my dread in 
exams., but by your System I have just gained 92 per 
cent, of the possible in it. I also used it in geo- 
graphy, Latin, &c, with equally good results. With 
a knowledge of your System no one need fear th« 
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" I have studied your ' System of Mnemonics,' and 
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factory results. It has greatly strengthened my natural 
memory, and given me the power to readily connect, 
and to lastingly memorise, the most abstruse, discon- 
nected, and uninteresting matter — making studv easy 
and delightful." 



* 
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* 

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For mutual advantage when you write to an advertiser please mention the Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900 



The Review of Reviews. 



419 




" Minneapolis Journal."] 

Uncle Sam: " Some of my folks want me to interfere, 
but I think this olive branch would get pretty badly 
mussed up if I should try it just now." 



PEPSALT 




A Delightful 
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PEPSALT 



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TO BE HAD OF ALL GROCERS. 



D. MITCHELL & CO., 

SOLE AQINTI. 



4 20 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 





HOLLAND'S NATURALINE 

I* the Perfection of Colour Restorers. 

t» contains no Lead. Sulphur, or any other injurious Chemicals. It 
MAS naturally, Quickly and Effectively in restoring the Original 
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All Parasitical Diseases treated successfully, 
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MARVELLOUS HAIR RESTORER, 4 os., 3/-; 6oz.,4/-; 8os.,f/-| 
CD os., 10/6 ; 24 os., 12/6. Postage, 6d. on small, 9d. on medium, 
and 1/- on large bottle. 

KATURALLNE, 6/6 per large bottle, fld. extra for postage. 
All Chemists, and from Manufacturer. 



E. HOLLAND, 

Zair Specialist, 193 Collin* St., Melbourne, 



Opposite Atheneum. 



JAMES THELWELL 

(Late MEEKS & COCK), 

Successors to Alston & Brown, 






TAILOR, 
HATTER and 
MERCER, 



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THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS FOR AUSTRALASIA. 

English Editor: W. T. STEAD. Australasian Editor: W. H. FITCHETT, B.A., LL.D. 

CONTENTS FOR APRIL, 1900. 



Mafeking — Waiting 

The History of the Month— 

I. Within the Colonies: 

The War 

The Scale of the Struggle . - 
Australian Soldiers 
Australian Losses 
The Prince of Wales . . 
The Federal Prospect 

New Zealand 

Will the Bill be Amended? . . 
The Appeal to the Privy Council 
A Battle of Lawyers 
A New. Court of Appeal 

The Plague 

Rats! 

Term* of Pea.ce 

Affairs in WA 

Had MV. Reid a Surplus? .. 

Soldierly Zeal 

The Coming Commonwealth 

II. Beyond the Colonies: 

By W. T. Stead. 
The French Navy 
A Motto for Count Mouravieff 
Outstanding Obligations 
The Samoan Bargain 
Our Gross of Green Spectacles 
Is Holland in Danger? 
Light in the East 
Dark Clouds in the West . . 
The Colonies and the Empire 
The Mood of the Boers 



Fighting the 



'Black Death" in Sydney 
By Percy R. Meggy. 



Frontispiece. 



PAGE 

425 
425 
425 
426 
427 
427 
427 
428 
428 
429 
430 
430 
431 
431 
431 
431 
432 
432 



433 

433 
433 
433 
434 
434 
434 
435 
435 
435 

436 



SPECIAL PICTORIAL SUPPLEMENT, No. 3: 

The Fighting of the Month 443 

March 14 — April 14. 
By W. H. Fitchett, B.A, LL.D. 
Containing seven Special Portraits and Photographs on 
Art Paper. 

A Choir of Critics on the War : 



I.— What England is Fighting For 
II.— Is England Right 
III.— What la at Issue in the Fight 
IV. — For How Much a General Counts 
V. — Bullet or Bayonet 



469 

469 
470 
471 
472 



VI. — The Missing Strategy . . 
VII. — The Lesson of Spion Kop 
VIII.— When England Wins 
IX.- — Betwixt Two Battles . . 
X. — Are Our Losses Great . . 



What an Australian Sees in England: 

TV— The Secret of the Empire .. 

By W. H. Fitchett, B.A., LL.D. 

Shall Western Australia be Broken Up? 

By the Hon. J. W. Hackett, M.L.C. 



l'AUK 

473 
474 
475 

477 
477 



479 



483 



Character Sketch : 

Some Great Soldiers 



about Lord 



of 
Kitchener 



the Queen — I. All 



How Jack Fights on Land 



493 
498 



Leading Articles in the Reviews: 

How the Germans Mismanage a Colony . . . . 501 

Disaster for the Wellman Expedition . . . . 502 

Longevity in the Nineteenth Century .. .. 503 

Electricity at the Paris Exhibition 504 

How the American Merchant Marine is Dying. . 505 
The Man Who Composed " Soldiers of the 

Queen" 506 

What Machine Labour Does for the World . . 507 

The Romance of the Railway Bookstall . . . . 508 

Tricks of Orators 509 

What is to be Done with the Boer Republics?. . 511 

Mr. Augustine Birrell on Taste in Books . . 612 

Tributes to John Ruskin 513 

Russia's Cesspool and Reservoir 514 

How Women Workers Live 514 

Value of the Colonial Forces 515 

Make Rifle Practice a National Sport . . . . 516 

South African Climate and Contour . . . . 516 

A New Danger for Northern Africa . . . . 517 

The United States as Coloniser 518 

" The Bicycle and Crime " 519 

The Puzzles of Astronomy . . . . . . . . 519 

Stories from the Magazines 520 

The Secret of Mr. Moody's Success . . . . 521 

Mr. Carnegie's Profits 522 

How the Queen Feels about the War . . . . 522 

The Review? Reviewed 



Business Department: 

The Financial History of the Month 



. -V23 



529 



MESSAGERES MARITIMES. 



SYDNEY 

TO 
LONDON 

IN 
30 DAYS. 

vU Colombo 
and Puis. 



The Service la carried OB by rapid Steamers of 8,600 tons, leaving Sydney every month. 



Rates of Passage Money to London, £25 to £70, gaoling Table winei 

Sherry, Cognac, English Ales Of Stout, whtoh are supplied free at Meal* to Finst-CHans Passengers. 

RETURN TICKETS AT REDUCED KATES. Liberal Conoesaens to Families. English Spoken on Board. 

Passenger* Booked to India, China, and Japan, in ovnneotioa with the Company's Regular Mail Lines nodes 

Postal Contract with French Government ORDINARY RETURN TICKETS, FIRST-CLAM, hetweeo Sydney, 

Melbourne and Adelaide, issued by this Company, or by the Railway Offices, are •nterehaugeaUe tor return by :,aiJ 

or by Sea. 

Two Boats per Month leave Sydney for Noumea. 



Pec further Information apply at the Company's Ofice, PITT ST. (Comer of Queen's Place), 8TDN BT. 

BRASIER DE THUY, General Manager in Australia. 

Ageat In Melbourne, Mr. H. DE POS8EL, the OMorteot, Ooillna Street. 
Agents in Adelaide, Messrs DALOETY 4 CO. Ltd. 



422 The Review of Reviews. April 15, 1900. 

Do the Dead Return ? 

«S" IS A QUESTION MORE OFTEN ASKED THAN ANSWERED; 

9S BUT WHAT WE ARE MORE PARTICULARLY CONCERNED ABOUT IS 

CAN CHRONIC DISEASES BE CURED ? 

This is indisputably proved in the affirmative by 

Mr. H, E. KUGELMANN, 

The Eminent Herbal Practitioner, who has been successfully practising in Australia for the past 25 years, and 

who may be consulted at 

14 and 16 QUEEN STREET, near Flinders Street, MELBOURNE. 



NO CHARGE is made for CONSULTATION, either Personally or by Letter. 



GRAVE MISTAKES IN THE TREATMENT OF DISEASES. 

Owing to certain recent investigations a profound stir has be°n caused amongst the leading medical experts and dootors of both London and 
Puts. It has been ascertained absolutely beyond doubt that grave mistakes have been almost universally made in the past in the treatment of 
diseases, especially in the management of the so-called Incurable or Chronic cases. It has been now clearly demonstrated that the custom ot 
floating the patient with "mineral" medicines is as useless as it is dangerous. Thousands of lives must have been annually sacrificed in this way, 
which lives might have been saved if the remedies used had been of an "organic" instead of an inorganic nature. Now, it has recently been 
discovered by the invesiigating scientists that medicines derived from "plants" assimilated easily and kindlv into the human system owing to 
their organic nature, whilst medicines of an inorganic nature would not so assimilate, but on the other hand acted as foreign substances in tb« 
body and frequently heightened the evil they were intended to cure. In the near future we may expect a complete revulsion and a universal 
return to those remedies which are made from " organic jj^substances, or to put it more simply, "made from things that grow." The deep 
mysteries of the Botanico-Medical world are thoroughly understood by but a few experts, but in their hands the " world of plants" truly become* 
a powerful weapon for good, which is more than amply proved by the following sworn certificates : — 

ULCERATION OF STOMACH (in Queensland). 

Mr. H. E. Kdoblmann, Consulting Herbal Practitioner. Withcott, via Helidon, Q., May 15, 1899. 

Dear Sir, — In reference to my case of Chronic Ulceration of the Stomach for which I went under your treatment about fifteen months ago, 
as it may be of benefit to others who may suffer in a similar manner I wish you to publish the marvellous oure which your treatment has effected 
Id my case. 

I had been ailing for a length of time, and there is no doubt but that my liver and digestive system had become very greatly impaired, 
eventuating in ulceration of the stomach ; and no matter what treatment I tried I could not obtain any relief, as no medicine seemed to have 
any effect upon my complaint. I was so bad with pains and general weakness that 1 did not know what to do with myself, and I finally became 
§o weak that I could scarcely get about, or even drive, as I could not bear the shaking of the vehicle. My sleep almost completely left me. I 
tried all kinds of light and nourishing foods, but all were of no avail, as I could not retain anything whatever upon my stomach for any longer time 
than a few minutes, when I would retch it all back I began to think that I would never be cured, and that I was doomed to die. Fortunately, 
however, I was induced to try your treatment, which I did in a most sceptical manner, never dreaming but that it would be of no more benefit 
to me than what I had already tried, but I am happy to state that the very first dose of your medicine gave me relief and stopped the vomiting 
entirely ; my digestive system in consequence began to improve in such a manner that I could digest food again. My sleep came back to me, 
Mid the pains gradually left me. By carefully continuing your treatment and natural foods, and by adhering strictly to the dietary specialities 
about which you instructed me in Toowoomba, i made rapid improvement ; in fact, I wish to state that I gained over two stone in weight in lees 
than four months. This I consider nothing less than marvellous, considering the very bad condition I was in from ulceration of the stomach 
I always keep your muscle food in ray house even now, as f believe it to be the best food that possibly can be produced, as its strengthening and 
musole-forming properties are simply astonishing, and I can strongly recommend it to anyone who is suffering from emaciation, weakness, oi 
debility. 

I feel confident in stating that my case is a most permanent and lasting cure, as I have not had any return of the malady for over twelve 
months. * have for many months past been as strong and robust as I ever was in my life, and 1 am able to do any kind of work the same as 
Usual. 

You can make whatever use you please of this for the benefit of otkers who may be suffering. I may add in conclusion that in order to teat 
Ae fact of my having been cured by you I consulted a local doctor and was thoroughly sounded by him about five months. He declared that 
I was then as sound as a block. Yours gratefully, (Signed\ G. H. KEAL. 

CURE OF EPILEPTIC FITS. 

(COPY OF SWORN CERTIFICATE.) 
Mr. H. E. Kuqelmann, Consulting Herbal Practitioner. Moyhu, Victoria, August 22, 1895. 

Dear Sir, — For the sake of suffering humanity I wish to place on record for all time my testimony to the wonderful cure which your skillful 
treatment has so permanently effected in my case, so that any others suffering as I did may know what to do and where to go for successful 
treatment for Epileptic Fits, as I was a sufferer from this distressing disease, but, thanks to your system of treatment, I can safely say that I am 
cured most effectively and permanently. Yours faithfully, (Signed) WALTER ALFRED FORGE. 

Sworn before me this 22nd day of August, 1895.— A. PINKERTON, J. P. 



Sufferers can be treated equally as well in England, Europe, America, Africa, 

India, or elsewhere. 




" Black and While."] 



MAFEKING- WAITING. 



We wait, we wait, see that ye come not late, 
The fight is fierce and fierce the foeman's hate. 
Our hearts are strong; but ah! the pity and dread 
Of mothers weeping and of children dead. 



We shall endure so long as day is seen, 
Our lives are only for our Mother Queen. 
But helpless bairns lie murdered at the gate; 
We wait, we wait, see that ye come not late. 




AUSTRALASIAN 



EDITION. 



Vol. XVI. No. 4. 



APRIL 15, 1900. 



Price, Ninepence. 



THE HISTORY OF THE MONTH. 



L— WITHIN THE COLONIES. 



The history of the war during the 
The war. montn is singularly barren of great 
events ; while, as far as small events 
are concerned, the balance of suc- 
cesses is, to everybody's surprise, on 
the side of the Boers ! The Orange 
Free State, it turns out, is not 
pacified, and the flame of war burns almost as 
fiercely as ever in even its southern districts. 
At Doom Spruit and at Reddersburg the 
Boers practically blotted out two small British 
columns, capturing nearly 1,000 men and 
seven guns, and doing it all — it 
may be frankly admitted - — with great 
craft. Australian sentiment scarcely accepts 
with philosophical resignation these unex- 
pected successes on the part of the enemy ; 
though, no doubt, if we have to fight, we would 
rather meet foemen whose fighting quality we 
can respect. The " man in the street " prob- 
ably finds Lord Roberts' apparent inaction 
during the month more trying to his patience 
than even such small and half accidental suc- 
cesses as the Boers have won. The reasons 
for Lord Roberts' temporary surrender of ac- 
tive operations are discussed elsewhere, and 
no one at heart doubts that they are both 
wise and adequate. 



War on a great scale cannot be 
The scale hurried. And not since Napoleon's 
st ° r f U ggi e , Russian campaign has any civilised 
nation undertaken a war so remote, 
and so beset with adverse natural conditions, 
as that Great Britain is now waging in South 
Africa. The mere spaciousness of South 
African geography might well tax to the 
breaking-point the resources of any nation less 
rich in resource than Great Britain. Let it 
be remembered that Mafeking is 870 miles 
from Cape Town, or as far as Bourke is from 
Adelaide \ that Bloemfontein is 450 miles from 
Port Elizabeth, and Johannesburg 714; while 
the distance from Cape Town of these two 
places is 750 miles and 1,014 miles respectively. 
But the average Australian is contemptuous of 
geographical distance. Impatience burns in 
his blood. He has the defects, as well as tbe 
virtues, of youth. He is hungry for sensa- 
tion, and would like to have at least one great 
victory served up fresh with his chop and 
coffee every morning. The war is, for the 
eager, ardent, and hurrying Australian tem- 
perament, a wholesome discipline in patience ! 
In the fighting of the month all the 
Australian Australian contingents have played 
soldiers. a g a n an t part. They are every- 
where at the front, set in comrade- 



420 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



ship with the finest Imperial regiments — the 
Highlanders, the Guards, the Scots Greys, &c. 
And they win, and deserve to win, golden 
opinions from all the experts. For resource 
and pluck and intelligence, for loyal comrade- 
ship, for patience in hardship, for quickness in 
adapting themselves to new conditions, no- 
thing could well surpass the Australians. 
And the same fine qualities are visible 
in all the contingents. New Zealanders 
or West Australians, Tasmanians or Queens- 
landers, men from New South Wales, 
or Victoria, or South Australia — all 
have borne themselves nobly. The Austra- 
lian colonies, in a word, will emerge from the 
conflict with a distinct reputation for fine sol- 
dierly qualities, and with a new place in the 
affection and respect of the Empire. It is 
already suggested in the London press that, 
at the close of the war, all the Australian con- 
tingents should be taken, at the Imperial cost, 
to London, and at some great parade in Hyde 
Park, or at Aldershot, should be presented 
with colours by the Queen herself. 



War is a grim game, and a tragical 

Australian price has, of course, to be paid for 

Losses, these honours. The losses of the 

Australian contingents during the 
month have been very heavy. Doom Spruit 
and Reddersburg have cost them as much as 
Rensburg. Victoria, it is to be noted, has 
suffered curiously in officers. Out of eleven 
killed, or dead through sickness, no less than 
six are officers, and one is a non-commissioned 
officer. These figures are, at least, a proof 
of devotion and gallant leadership in the 
higher ranks. The losses by sickness have 
been great, and keen regret is felt for the 
death of such men as Dr. Hopkins and Dr. 
Hall Owen. The London " Times " declares 
that the blood of the colonial soldiers who have 
died in the war, their gallant comradeship in 
peril and suffering with the Imperial troops, 
will serve as a new cement to the Empire ; and 
it quotes some famous words to describe the 
new comradeship of the battlefield : — " Their 
blood flowed in the same stream, and drenched 
the same field. When the chill 



"WHO SAID « BOBS'?" 




THE TORTOISE LOOKS OUT. 



Westminster Gazette."] 



KEVIEW OF llEVIEWS, 

April 15, 1900. 



The History of the Month. 



427 



dawned, their dead lay cold and stark to- 
gether ; in the same deep pit their bodies were 
deposited ; the green corn of spring is now 
breaking from their commingled dust, the 
dew falls from heaven upon their union in the 
grave." 

The shot aimed at the Prince of 

The Prince Wales in the Brussels railway sta- 

of waies. t j on sent a tlarill of horrified anger 

throughout the Empire, and all the 
colonies sent hasty and emphatic cablegrams 
of sympathy to the Prince. The shooting of 
the vicious or half-crazed youth was, fortun- 
ately, of a very wretched quality. He missed 
the Prince twice, though firing at a distance of 
only a few feet. His bullet, had it been better 
aimed, might have changed the course of his- 
tory. The personal element counts for much 
in modern royalties. A few generations back 
character was the least important element in a 
monarch His office was sacred, no matter 
how low the morals or contemptible the intel- 
ligence of its holder. But the conscience of 
mankind is to-day better instructed and more 
sensitive. The passionate loyalty, with al- 
most the depths and fervour of a religion, felt 
toward the Queen is made possible by the 
purity and loftiness of her personal character. 
The narrow brain and meddling obstinacy of 
another George III. would break up the Em- 
pire. The detestable vices of another George 
I\ . would transform England into a republic! 
Everyone prays that the Queen may be spared 
for years to her subjects ; but the life of the 
Prince of Wales, who must ascend the throne 
when the Queen dies, is of real importance to 
the Empire. He has outlived the faults of 
youth, is rich in the calm sense which comes 
of many years, and has something more than 
a gleam of his mother's unfailing tact. The 
bullet which substituted — as the next heir to 
the throne — the Duke of York, with his youth 
and crude character — said to have in it a strain 
of the obstinacy of another George III. — for 
the Prince of Wales, might easily have had a 
dangerous importance to these colonies. 

The Bill which is to give political 

The Federal existence to the Australian Com- 

Prospect. monwea lth will be introduced into 

the Imperial Parliament during the 



next few weeks, and its fortunes will be 
watched with the keenest interest. Events 
have shown that there was real necessity for 
despatching delegates to London to watch 
over the Bill. The measure has been threat- 
ened with perils of two kinds, one of them, at 
least, wholly unexpected. New Zealand has 
claimed to be consulted as to the Bill. It 
demands that for outstanding States the right 
should be reserved (i) to enter the Common- 
wealth on the same terms as the original 
States ; (2) to federate with the new Common- 
wealth meanwhile on special points — such as 
defence and access to the federal courts ; (3) 
to enter into reciprocal treaties with the Com- 
monwealth. New Zealand also objects to 
any limitation in the right of appeal to the 
Privy Council, and has suggested a new refer- 
endum on the Bill, as amended to meet its 
wishes. 

It is probable that had New Zea- 
N ew land submitted these amendments 
Zealand. to t i ie Federal Convention itself 
they would have been favourably 
considered. There is much to be said on 
their behalf. But the federating colonies are 
not unreasonably aggrieved that New Zealand 
should make its appearance as a factor in Fed- 
eration at so late a stage in the process, and 
at a point so remote. Its appeal should have 
been made to the sister colonies, not to the 
Imperial Parliament. Mr. Seddon protests that 
his spirit is not unfriendly, and says he appeals 
to London rather than to Melbourne or Syd- 
ney because, in his judgment, this is the only 
proper course. The truth, no doubt, is that 
the appeal to London was an afterthought. 
When the other colonies were busy shaping 
the new constitution, New Zealand looked 
on with a sense of remoteness and philosophi- 
cal indifference. It now sees that the emer- 
gence of the Australian Commonwealth will 
change the political balance of the colonies, 
and create a totally new set of political con- 
ditions. Hence its late and hurried entrance 
into the arena. The suggestion of a new re- 
ferendum is very unhappy. The federating 
colonies have been doing little else for the 
last three years than taking plebiscites on the 
business, and they are a little sick of the pro- 
cess. 



428 



The Review of Reviews, 



April 15, 1900. 




4*~ kno« 

Melbourne " Punch."] 



THE ATTACK ON THE BILL. 



On April 5 Mr. Chamberlain met 
win the bi iithe delegates of all the colonies in 
Am.?—, Conference, and it was decided that 
the case for New Zealand " was not 
urgent," a gentle fashion of saying that it was 
not convincing. The case for Wes- 
tern Australia stands in a different 
category. That colony took part in shap- 
ing the Commonwealth Bill, but its Parlia- 
ment denied to the people of the colony any 
opportunity of voting on the measure, and did 
so, it cannot be doubted, because it was 
guessed the vote in favour of the Bill would 
have been overwhelming. Sir John Forrest 
demanded a series of changes in the constitu- 
tion, but these have now shrunk to a single 
point, the suspension, as far as W.A. is con- 
cerned, of the federal tariff for a term of years. 
This does not seem too costly a price to pay for 
securing the inclusion of the great Western 
colony in the new Australian Commonwealth, 
and negotiations in London may yet have the 
happy effect of securing this result. W.A., 
during this interregnum, would, of course, 
have no voice in shaping the general tariff 
for the Commonwealth. The authority 
of a Conference of Premiers would 
be ample to justify such a modification of the 



Bill, and public opinion throughout Australia 
would cheerfully accept this settlement of the 
question. 



The Appeal 



_ The one serious point that remains 
to the is the reluctance of the Imperial 
council, authorities to accept the clauses in 
the Bill which seem to limit the 
right of appeal to the Privy Council. Sir 
Richard Webster and Sir Robert Finlay, as re- 
presenting the English Cabinet, contend that 
this is really to snap the most precious link 
which binds the Empire together. There 
must be, they argue, a final court of legal ap- 
peal for the Empire, otherwise the Empire 
ceases to be a legal unit. The Australian 
delegates naturally demand that the Bill shall 
be accepted as a whole. It has been stamped 
with final approval by the Australian consti- 
tuencies, and must be regarded as sacrosanct. 
Not a comma, not a letter in it must be altered ! 
This, however, is an absurdly extreme 
view to take, and there is real confusion as to 
how far the right of appeal to the Privy Coun- 
cil is affected by the Bill. A federal High 
Court is to be created, and all appeals from 
the other courts of the Commonwealth lie to 
it. But from the High Court itself an appeal 



Bbview of Reviews, 
April 15, 1900. 



The History of the Month. 



429 




rg rain it" ' ( . „ 

|(10 -" l/e C y rftlV^m. 1 tvaci letter cUi^e Sp iVortli/j^ of ftju igotto 




" Bulletin."] 

to the Privy Council is possible subject to two 
conditions : (i) the appeal must not relate to 
any interpretation of the constitution of the 
Commonwealth ; (2) special leave for appeal 
must first be granted by the Privy Council 
itself. The right of appeal, it is clear, will 
survive, though in an attenuated shape, even 
under the new constitution of the Australian 
Commonwealth. 

It is to be noted, indeed, that so 

a Battle or keen a lawyer as Mr. R. B. Hal- 
Lawyers. dane> Q C> M p ? holds th&t th( , 

limitations on the right of appeal 
which the Bill seems to make, are of doubtful 
force. He says : — 

It is by no means clear that, if the Bill passes as it 
stands, the appeal which now lies to the Queen-in- 
Council from the State Courts will be taken away. For 
the rule is that the Prerogative, of which this power 



to hear appeals forms an existing part, can be cut 
down only by unambiguous words, and all that section 73 
does is to give the new High Court jurisdiction to hear 
an appeal of the same kind, without saying that the 
appeal to the Privy Council is to cease. In Canada the 
effect of provisions not dissimilar has been to confer 
on litigants the right to appeal either to the Supreuie 
Court which has been established under the power con- 
ferred by the Dominion Act of 1867, or to the Privy 
Council. If a similar construction is, as seems probable, 
to be placed on an Australian Bill, the net result will 
be to leave the existing appeal intact, providing an 
alternative appeal to the new High Court. 

On the whole, the matter in dispute is not very 
serious. The Federal Convention itself was 
divided in opinion on the matter. Queens- 
land, it is already intimated, will accept any 
modifications which the Imperial Parliament 
may make in the challenged clauses. A Con- 
ference of Premiers is to be held in a few days 
to consider the subject, and it may be taken 
for granted that no unwise obstinacy will be 
shown on either side. The Imperial Parlia- 



43° 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1 900. 



merit will yield to the colonies if they are very 
much in earnest on the subject; and the 
colonies will certainly not risk the existence of 
the new Commonwealth for the sake of forbid- 
ding- appeals — which might never be made — to 
the Privy Council. 

It seems probable that in shaping 
a New t j ie constitution for the new Com- 

Court of 

Appeal, monwealth, the colonies will really 
modify the legal constitution of 
Great Britain. Mr. Haldane makes the sug- 
gestion that a totally new court of appeal — 
a Supreme Tribunal for the Empire — should 
be created, in which the colonies could be 
represented. The Judicial Committee of the 
Privy Council as a court of appeal has many 
limitations, and some reform is urgent, Mr. 
Haldane says : — 

There seems to be no valid argument which can be 
urged against the creation of a Supreme Tribunal for the 
Empire which should sit in London and dispose of ap- 
peals of sufficient importance, not only from India and 
the Colonies but from England, Scotland and Wales. 
To such a tribunal the House of Lords and Privy Coun- 
cil would transfer their judicial functions. It would in- 
clude among its members distinguished colonial lawyers 
who would represent the groups of colonies where dif- 
ferent systems of jurisprudence prevail. Its mem- 
bers should, like the existing law lords, be life peers, 
and its sittings might be held in the House of Lords, 
the building most fit, by position, appearance and asso- 
ciations, _ to contain it. And the possession by the 
colonial judges of seats in that House, seats which would 
be theirs for all purposes, would be subject only to 
that restraint on party feeling, the obligation to which 
is in the practice of to-day recognised by the law peers. 

Mr. Chamberlain has announced that he is 
willing to accept this compromise. The new 
Court would have an effectiveness and dignity 
of the highest sort, and would be accepted as a 
most valuable addition to the legal machinery 
of the Empire. Incidentally, it would offer 
a magnificent prize to the great lawyers of the 
colonies. 

The shadow of the plague still lies, 
black and menacing, on Sydney. 
At the moment we write 111 cases 
have been reported, while the num- 
ber of deaths is thirty-eight. This is a death- 
rate almost as malignant as that of Bom- 
bay. Every third person attacked has died. 
Mr. Lyne is fighting the plague with praise- 
worthv energy. Whole districts of the city 
are under more or less strict quarantine ; some 
of the wharves have been closed against traffic ; 
,£30,000 per month is being expended in clean- 



The Plague. 




There is but one gospel true and 1 preach it unto yon, 

When the plague conies like the spectre that haunts Jhe sombre 

yew 
And its bony feet are on the street and tread them night and day 

Wash and pray ! 
""t more especially wash this earthly tenement of play- 
Wash aDd pray 1 

R. Mc.V. 

" Bulletin."] 

sing operations. The Colonial Secretary, Mr. 
See, in a recent speech, declared with patriotic 
courage that Sydney was " the cleanest city in 
the world." That assertion must be regarded 
as being of the nature of a polite 
prophecy rather than a severely accurate de- 
scription of present facts. Mr. See 
added that '* statistics " proved Sydney to be 
the whitest and sweetest of earthly cities. But 
" statistics," according to a well-known story, 
are only lies in the " nth " degree ! Sydney, 
no doubt, will be one of the cleanest, as well 
as one of the most beautiful, cities of the world 
by the time the plague is mastered. Filth 
is being removed from certain streets liter- 
ally in thousands of tons. There is no reason, 
meanwhile, for panic. Even 1 1 1 cases, when 
measured against a population like that of 
Sydney, are but as a pin-prick on, say, the 
hide of a mastodon. Adelaide has practically 
stamped out the plague. Two cases are re- 
ported at Fremantle. One was discovered 
in a newly-arrived steamer in Hobson's Bay, 
and promptly sent into quarantine. The 
"Black Death," in a word, is nibbling at the 
Australian continent ; but no serious fear need 
be felt. Our air is too sweet, our cities too 
clean, our sunlight too dry to make any serious 
visitation of the plague possible. 



Review of Reviews, 
Aruib 15, 1900. 



The History of the Month. 



43 > 



ats ! 



One result of the plague will be to 
practically destroy the rat in Aus- 
tralia. New Zealand was once — 
or was reputed to be — in a rat- 
less condition. But the rodent has multi- 
plied almost as fast as the rabbit, until it is a 
real pest in Australian cities. Alarmed man- 
kind has now discovered that the rat is the 
harnessed courier of the bubonic plague. The 
verv fleas in its fur are microbe-carriers. So 
the warfare against rats is being carried on 
with deadly earnestness. In Sydney alone, 
by the end of March, an army of 38,000 rats — 
duly counted — had been destroyed. A price 
is on a rat's head — or tail — everywhere. In 
Melbourne a householder is liable to a fine 
of £2 for every rat discovered on his premises. 
If the crusade lasts the rat will soon be as 
extinct in Australasia as the dodo. 



^fej^ 



AK0U7 







Bulletin 



THE TARIFF ON RATS. 



The colonies have very definite 

Terms of convictions as to the terms on 

Peace. which peace in South Africa ought 

to be made, and there is no shy re- 
serve in announcing these convictions. Their 
views, it cannot be doubted, will weigh heavily 
with the Imperial Government. Mr. Seddon, 
with characteristic energy and promptitude, 
cabled to Mr. Chamberlain that no peace 
would satisfy the colonies which did not bring 
the Boer republics within the zone of the Em- 
pire, and so make war — or such a war, at least, 
as that which now rages — impossible later. 
Mr. Seddon added that the Australasian col- 
onies " could send sufficient men to hold the 
Transvaal, if the Imperial forces were needed 
for service elsewhere "- — a significant hint to 
any continental Power meditating: interven- 



tion ! Mr. Lyne, on behalf of the other Aus- 
tralian Premiers, cabled to London an endorse- 
ment of what is understood to be the views of 
the British Cabinet. These cablegrams have 
given great pleasure to the Imperial Govern- 
ment. They show that the colonies agree 
with the mother country in policy, as well as 
are willing to share her fortunes in the field- 
The English journals declare the cablegrams 
are political documents of the first importance. 
" The Boer ultimatum," the London " Daily 
Telegraph " says, " represented an attempt to 
disintegrate the Empire ; the messages now 
sent by the colonial Premiers show that the 
colonies are on the side of the unity of the 
Empire. - ' 

A curious mischance befell the 

Affairs in famous petition to the Queen for 

W - A - separation. It was packed in blue 

plush, locked up in a " gilded cas- 
ket," and formally handed to Sir Gerard Smith 
for transport to London. His Excellency, 
however, carelessly — or carefully — left the 
perilous document behind him ! Rumour — 
that " lying jade " of the poets — whispers al- 
ternately that the Governor hated the petition, 
and wanted to kill it ; and that a trick had been 
played on the simple-minded Sir Gerard, and 
he was solemnly bearing to London an empty 
casket, which had been wickedly substituted 
for that containing the petition. The un- 
adorned truth seems to be that His Excellency 
left the petition with his advisers, that they 
might attach to it their comments and advice. 
Meanwhile, Sir John Forrest's wiser attitude 
on Federation seems likely to assuage local 
sentiment. Sir John pledges himself, if a con- 
cession is made to W.A. in the matter of the 
federal tariff, to pass the Federal Bill through 
Parliament as a Ministerial measure ; and the 
Federal League of W.A., "in the spirit of com- 
promise," joins hands with Sir John Forrest. 
It is to be noted, however, that the mining 
community in W.A. wants Federation for the 
sake of its tariff! 

New South Wales is still interested 
T' Had j n the question of Mr. Reid's 

Mr. Reid a. , . 

surplus? hnance; but there is much angry 

dispute as to the jury by which Mr. 

Reid's alleged surpluses are to be tried, and 



«32 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



the principles on which they are to be judged. 
Messrs. French, T. A. Dibbs, and Yarwood 
are nominated by M r. Lyne as a Committee of 
Experts. All are able men ; but Mr. Reid 
objects to Mr. Yarwood because he 
is a bitter political enemy. Mr. Lyne 
submits to the Committee forty-one 
questions, and gives the enquiry a range to 
which Mr. Reid objects. The existing law 
directed the accounts for each year to be closed 
at the end of the year, instead of being kept 
open to provide for claims that had not yet 
arisen. Mr, Reid contends that the only 
matter to be tried is whether his budgets 
honestly complied with the existing law. Mr. 
Lyne holds that the wisdom of the law itself 
as well as the question of whether Mr. Reid 
complied with it, must be investigated. An 
adverse finding, on this plan, may condemn the 
law, and acquit Mr. Reid! Events, mean- 
while, are kindly to Mr. Lyne. He is not an 
orator or a diplomatist; but he is a man of 
affairs. And all public interest in New South 
Wales has been concentrated on the Contin- 
gents and the Plague ; matters which required 
neither oratory nor diplomacy, but only plain 
sense and business energy. Mr. Lyne has 
had the opportunity of showing that he pos- 
sesses these qualities. 

The rush of volunteers to the Aus- 
soidieriy tralian contingents in all the col- 
zeai. onies has been great, and has been 
attended with many amusing inci- 
dents. In New Zealand the Minister of De- 
fence received the following application from a 
school-boy : — 

" I have the pleasure of offering my services for the 
Transvaal. I will accept any office, from drummer boy 
upwards. I am 11 years of age, 5 ft. high, and weigh 
6 stone 1 lb. I am captain of the Featherstone school, 
and in the 0bh standard. My brother is leaving Sydney 
for the Transvaal on the 27th, by the s.s. Warrigal, 
and I hope to meet him in South Africa. 

" P.S. — I wish I could urge a few of the other boys 
to come, but they seem to be frightened. Please send 
the time when I am to come, and where I am to go." 

Mr. Smethurst, the President of the Wyalong 
Rifle Club (N.S.W.), tells in the London 
' Times " the tale of the volunteering in his 
district : — 

" Our contribution to the second contingent having 
been inspected, we rejected five as not sufficiently pro- 
ficient with the rifle to justify their transport 350 miles 
to Sydney for testing. Three of the chosen seven sat 
on my doorstep nearly the whole day after enrolling 
waiting for orders to pack and march. In the even- 



ing I had them ait the ' Manual ' till 11 o'clock. They 
had never done any drill before, and 1 wanted them to 
hold their rifles right end up wnen they were inspected 
at headquarters. They stuck to it like men (tempera- 
ture 98 deg. ait midnight), and I appointed daybreak 
next morning for the next drill, it they would drag 
me out of bed, which they accordingly aid, and went, 
at it again till breakfast. After breakfast they heard 
that some good horses were to be bought at a station 
about twenty-live miles away. Off they went on borrowed 
nags, and returned at 8 p.m. with two horses, bought 
at £14 per head. One of the men was horseless, and 
111 despair. Never have 1 seen such a picture of misery 
as that young man who had no horse. His head hung 
loose and limp on his shoulders; inexpressible woe wae 
depicted on every feature. The earih was dark, and 
life had no more to offer. If he only had a horse he 
was certain of being amongst the chosen. "Mick,' 
he said to a friend, ' if you get me a horse I'll give 
you my two-roomed house, all the furniture, the allot- 
ment of land, the fowls, two geese, my bicycle, and four 
ducks, and when the Government pays for the horse 
I'll give you every penny they give me for him.' At 
last a horse was discovered, but he was not for sale. 
The owner graciously permitted the rare animal to be 
inspected. The night was dark; about 200 interested 
and excited spectators joined in the illumination of the 
great horse in the middle of the road by the light of 
wax matches; his hocks were felt and his teeth counted; 
he was ridden up and down the street; and at last, 
carried away by patriotism, his owner reluctantly parted 
with him at double the price he had brought him to 
town in search of. 

"At dawn of a scorching summer day our boys left 
us with a parting cheer; a forty-mile ride before them 
through dust and heat to the nearest railway station. 
Good luck go with them. From the heart of Aus- 
tralia to the heart of Africa they go to tight for the 
Empire that gives equal freedom to all men." 

The coming of the Commonwealth 

The comingis naturally the signal for much ac- 

C wT^th?" tivity. The federal elections may 

be expected to take place four or 
five months hence, and the Federal Parliament 
must find for itself a local habitation. It will 
meet in Melbourne, and the Victorian Pre- 
mier is anxiously considering what roof — that 
of Parliament House, or of the Exhibition 
Building — will best serve to shelter the new 
and august assembly. Mr. Oliver, under the 
authority of a Royal Commission, is passing 
all the " beauty spots " of New South Wales 
under review, for the purpose of recommend- 
ing a site for the federal capital. He has nar- 
rowed the number of sites down to six, and, 
personally, seems disposed to favour Bombala. 
This site has the merit of being in beautiful 
country mid-way betwixt Melbourne and Syd- 
ney, but the demerit of being on no railway- 
line. It would cost i'3,400,000 to construct 
a new railway linking Bombala with the two 
great cities of Australia. Albury is busy 
pushing its claims to be the federal capital. 
It has every virtue ; but is guilty of the offence 
of being much nearer Melbourne than Sydney 
And, from the New South Wales point of view, 
that offence is serious ! 



Revikw OF RHVIKW8, 
Amu. 15. 1*W. 



433 



IL-BEYOND THE COLONIES. 
By W. T. Stead. 



LONDON, March i, 1900. 

The Naval Estimates brought in 

The bv the French Government are the 

F N e a n v C y h natural corollary of the German 

naval programme, and the experi- 
ence of Fashoda. The French programme 
provides for the building of 178 new vessels, 
viz., 28 sea-going torpedo boats, 112 torpedo 
boats, and 26 submarine torpedo boats, so that 
when this scheme is carried out, the French 
fleet will comprise 28 swift ironclads, 24 iron- 
clad cruisers, 52 sea-going torpedo boats, 263 
torpedo boats, and 38 submarine boats. Our 
new naval estimate shows an increase of 
£928,000 above the record Estimates of last 
year. The total is £27,552,600. Add this to 
the total of £61.000,000 of war estimates, and 
we have an army and navy bill for the year of 
£89,500.000. It is melancholy to reflect that 
this renewed and sudden impetus in the direc- 
tion of warlike expenditure has immediately 
followed the Hague Conference. Mr. 
Goschen's observations on this point may be 
noted for reference : — 

It seems a verv long time since the Hague Conference, 
to consider the question of mutual disarmament, held its 
meetings, and when it was called, the House will re- 
member, we suggested as a Government that possibly 
the laying down of further battle-ships might be kept 
in suspense, with a view to ascertaining what the de- 
cision of the Hague Conference might be. This country 
was, I think, the only one which made a suggestion of 
the kind or met in any degree the peaceful spirit which 
inspired, most sincerely inspired, the Tsar, in calling 
the conference. The conference met, and soon it ap- 
peared that disarmament was a policy too Utopian to 
be entertained, or even reduction of armaments. Other 
valuable matters arose in the conference, but as to 
progressive reduction of armaments nothing at all was 
done- and in the next six months succeedina the con- 
ference more gigantic programmes stretching forward for 
eight, sixteen, and twenty years were conceived and 
elaborated by the Governments represented at the Hague 
Conference than had ever been put forward by those 
Powers before. 

Count Mouravieff has issued in- 

A Motto , , , ., . . 

for structions for the exhibition at 
count p ar i s of a complete collection of 

Mouravieff. ... 

documents, reports, &c, illustra- 
ting the effort that was made at the Hague to 
wean nations from the ruinous policy of com- 
petitive expenditure on armaments. If he 
wants a motto for his collection, he could find 



no more appropriate text than the words of 
the Apostle : — 

For I know that to will is present with me, but hovr 
to perform that which is good, I find not. For the 
good that I would, I do not, but the evil which I would 
not, that I do. 

What the nations have to discover is how to 
cast out the sin that dwelleth in them, — but 
this, alas! seldom goeth out except through 
great tribulation. 

So long as this competitive race of 
° ut " armaments continues there can be 

standing . ,, , 

obligations no abatement, least of all on the 
part of Great Britain. Mr. Bowles 
remarked incidentally to the House the other 
night : — 

The responsibilities w/hioh Great Britain had in- 
curred were very great. Apart from our trade and 
the protection of our colonies, we were bound by 
treaties to defend the absolute and international neu- 
trality of Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, the 
Ionian Islands, Sweden against Russia, the indepen- 
dence of Turkey, Greece, Chusan, and Portugal. It 
was therefore important, in view of these liabilities, 
that we should not lose any part of our sea power. 

Mr. Goschen, in reply, confessed he was not 
familiar with this formidable list of our na- 
tional obligations. It would really seem as if 
it was not Tommy Atkins, but our ruling 
statesman, who deserves to be known as " the 
Absent-Minded Beggar." Mr. Bowles' list 
might be easily extended. He said nothing 
about Egypt, where there are ominous 
rumours as to French intrigue and military 
disaffection, nor did he even allude to our for- 
gotten obligations, under the Anglo-Turkish 
Convention, to the unfortunate Armenians. 
Neither did he say anything about Morocco, 
which, although no treaty obligation exists, it 
is commonlv believed we should defend 
against French attack. Apart from direct ob- 
ligations we may at any moment be confronted 
by a new and more formidable Mahcli, in the 
person of El Senussi, concerning the reality 
of which menace see Mr. Threlfall's article, 
quoted elsewhere. 

The so-called bargain driven by 
The the Germans about Samoa was ex- 

Samoan . . _ 

Bargain, plained to the Reichstag by Count 
von Bulow on February 12 in a 



434 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



speech which set forth with such cynical frank- 
ness how England had been " done " in the 
matter, that the German Foreign Minister 
found it necessary, on the principle of sfex- 
cuse s'accuse, to make the following extra- 
ordinary statement : — 

In conducting the negotiations, I did not make it 
my objeot to ovrnvaiii the other Powers. That is not 
our manner of dealing. I rather endeavoured to sec 
that we should not ourselves be outdone, and directed 
my efforts to seizing the proper moment for conclud- 
ing the treaties. 

Which is to say, that the astute Kaiser re- 
garded the seizure of the true psychological 
moment as the essence of the whole negotia- 
tion. And so, of course, it was. The 
Samoan agreement directly followed the out- 
break of the war in South Africa. This was 
not " overreaching." It was simply seizing 
the " proper moment." 

Moses, in " The Vicar of Wake- 

,r f field," who was induced to buy a 

Green gross of green spectacles, is the 

Spectacies.p rot0 typ e of our Government 

when they concluded the agreement by which 

they gave Germany everything for nothing, 

and parted with Samoa for the sake of mere 

show of concession elsewhere. That it was 

only show and not substance Count von Bulow 

took pains to demonstrate. He said : — 

It was obvious from the first that from the standpoint 
of practical politics we should have to compensate 
Great Britain in some way for her rights in Samoa, 
which were formally as well founded as our own. We 
have, therefore, ceded to Great Britain the Solomon 
Islands, lying to the east and south-east of Bougainville. 
We keep our principal island Bougainville and the island 
of Buka, which projects from it. In these two islands 
there is the possibility of future colonisation. The 
islands of Choiseul and Szabel, which we have given 
up, could not be opened up at all. They have no 
especially favourable maritime position, and the chief 
interest in the islands is the right to hire labourers 
there. This right we have expressly retained in our 
agreement with Great Britain. In Togoland we keep 
that very part of the neutral zone which best serves 
our purpose, which is the most convenient for us, and 
which also offers us the best economic prospects. Con- 
cerning our extra-territorial right in Zanzibar, it had 
actually become a shell without the kernel, and even 
this empty shell was ours only until 1902. But we 
have expressly stipulated that we only surrender our 
extra-territorial rights in Zanzibar when the other Powers 
to whom the same right belongs have done the same. 

" A shell without the kernel " exactly explains 
the precise nature of the equivalent we shall 
always receive if we go bargaining with the 
Germans when we go a-gunning in South 
Africa. 

The German Government has al- 
ls Holland ready given us fair and full notice 

[Danger? tnat tne y ^° not intend to remain 

under the shadow of our naval 

supremacy much longer. With a paramount 

fleet they may want other ports and colonies 

than those they now enjoy. How would Hol- 



land suit? When the German nation moves 
it sends out Professors as Uhlans. The main 
army may not always follow the professorial 
Uhlan, but a prudent nation will always be on 
the alert when such feelers approach its ter- 
ritory. The professorial Uhlan is very busy 
with Holland just now. An article in the 
" Gegenwart," and other articles in the news- 
papers, show what Germans are thinking of : — 

On January 31 Professor Adolph Wagner closed an 
article entitled " From Industrial State to World- 
Power " with a " dream " of " the new German Em- 
pire forming the crystallising point of a new central and 
western European coalition of peoples and States, based, 
not upon force, but upon voluntary approximation in 
the individual interests of all concerned, and upon 
economic combination and alliance." 

Another writer in the " Munchner Allgemeine 
Zeitung " on " The Future of German Mari- 
time Commerce," says : — 

We must not leave the Rhine out of account be- 
cause its mouth is economically and politically severed 
from us; but we must reckon upon a time, which is, 
it is to be hoped, no longer very remote, when the land 
of the RJiine harbours will be more, closely united 
with the German Empire by an economic alliance of 
Customs and a political alliance of friendship. 

This alliance is to " shatter the unconditioned 

commercial supremacy of England." There 

may be no army in the rear. But here is the 

professorial Uhlan. 

Lord Rosebery, in a recent speech, 
pointed out and Lord Kimberley em- 
phasised his warning, to the evi- 
dence of Russian activity afforded 
by her recent arrangement with Persia, which 
tends to advertise, rather than to emphasise, 
her natural and necessary ascendency over the 
Court of Teheran. Lord Kimberley spoke 
with unwonted freedom as to the danger which 
he seemed to anticipate might result from 
Russian action in Afghanistan. If Dr. Dil- 
lon, of the " Daily Telegraph," may be be- 
lieved—and although a pessimist to the back- 
bone, he is at St. Petersburg, and he knows 
his Russians — no less a personage than the 
present Minister of War, General Kouropat- 
kin, seriously meditated taking advantage of 
our present difficulties in order to strengthen 
the position of Russia in Western Afghanistan. 
It was with this view, says Dr. Dillon, that the 
recent mysterious movement of troops to 
Kuskh took place, and a definite proposal to 
this effect was submitted by General Koura- 
patkin to the Emperor. But there, of course, 
it met with the only answer that could be ex- 
pected from Nicholas II. The Emperor is 
reported to have put his foot down at once. 
and said that he would not depart a hair- 
breadth from neutrality in order to profit b> 
English complications. This, the shrewd 
cynic will say, is magnificent, but it is not busi- 



Light 



the East. 



Review of Reviews, 
April 15, 1900. 



The History of the Month. 



435 



ness. Nevertheless, if it is a fact, let us thank 
Heaven that there is one bright spot on the 
horizon, and that England, surrounded by en- 
vious rivals, can count upon the neutrality and 
good faith of the Tsar. 

It is impossible to ignore the fact 
Dark ciouds t j iat t j ie sky j ]as overclouded very 

the west, rapidly in the West. To begin 
with, Lord Pauncefote is leaving 
Washington — a disaster which can best be un- 
derstood bv the man in the street by asking 
him to acquiesce in the recall of Lord Roberts. 
The attempt made by the two Governments to 
reconcile the provisions of the Clayton-Bulwer 
Treatv with the demand of American Imperi- 
alism for the construction of the Nicaragua 
Canal by America alone, seems destined to 
miscarry. The moment the Treaty was pub- 
lished a vehement campaign was undertaken 
against it, the attack being concentrated on 
the clause by which the United States binds 
herself not to fortify the new canal. This is 
denounced as a scandalous concession to Eng- 
land, and all the resources of journalistic vitu- 
peration with pen and pencil have been 
launched upon the President and Mr. Secre- 
tary Hay for their alleged surrender to Eng- 
land. As a matter of fact, no one in Eng- 
land cares two straws about the matter, and 
the hubbub on the other side of the Atlantic 
has produced no echo here. The Clayton- 
Bulwer Treaty has long been an anachronism, 
and could not possibly apply to a canal con- 
structed bv the United States with its own 
capital and on its own responsibility. The 
new treaty recognised that the United States 
must alone police the Canal, and that being 
so, it does not matter greatly whether the 
police barracks are fortresses. 

One of the results of summoning 

colonies our Canadian and Australian col- 

tne Empire, °nists to shed their blood in the 

South African War is that the Col- 
onial Governments will expect to have a voice 
in the settlement that is to follow the war. 
The British Empire, as we have known it, is 
passing away. In its place there may come — 
or there may not — a federation of self-govern- 
ing colonies with the old Motherland as a 
common centre. The task of constructing 
such a federation will put the statesmanship 
of our rulers to a severer strain than any to 



which it has yet been subjected. Rightly 
used, the opportunity may enable us to achieve 
what has hitherto been regarded as a dream 
of the idealist. But if it is not rightly used? 
The way in which it will work in one 
direction is quite clear. We have in the past 
found it difficult enough to arrange a modus 
vivendi with the United States on questions 
that concern Canada. Now, when the Alas- 
kan Question comes up for settlement, Canada 
is not likely to be more manageable because of 
the exploit of the Canadians which precipitated 
the surrender of Cronje. As they have fought 
our battles they will expect us to fight theirs, 
and the first time we refuse to support some 
extreme colonial claim we shall be accused of 
the basest ingratitude. 

That the Boers themselves loathe 
The Mood this war and would gladly end it, 
the Boers, provided their independence is not 

endangered, is attested by a host 
of competent witnesses. One of the most 
remarkable of these is the army chaplain, 
Reginald F. Collins, who reported to Sir 
Charles Warren on the mood of the Boers after 
their victory at Spion Kop. His report is 
very explicit. Speaking of the Boers, with 
whom he spent three days burying the British 
dead, he says : — 

For my part, I confess that the deepest impression 
has been made on me by these conversations and by the 
manly bearing and the straightforward, outspoken way 
in which we were met. There were two things I parti- 
cularly noted. There was a total absence of anything 
like exultation over what thev must consider a mili- 
tary success. Not a word, not a look, not a gesture 
or sign that could by the most sensitive of persons be 
construed as a display of their superiority. Far from 
it; there was a sadness, almost anguish, in the win- 
in which they referred to our fallen soldiers. I can 
best convey the truth of this statement, and show 
that there is no attempt at exaggeration, in using the 
word "anguish," by repeating expressions used, not 
once, but again and again, by great numbers of them 
as they inspected the ghastly piles of our dead. " My 
God! what a sight!" ; "We hate this war. This war 
is accursed. Every day on our knees we all pray that 
God will bring this war to an end": " Tt is not our 
war: it is a war of the millionaires. What enmity have 
we with these poor fellows 9 ": "Would that Cham- 
berlain, Rhodes, and the millionaires could see thi 
trenches and graves": "We all hate war. We are 
men of Peace. We want to go hack to our homes and 
farms, to sow our seed and reap our fields, and not 
to make war. Good God! When will il end?" There 
were manv like expressions of grief used, but these were 
the most frequent, and are those that remain indelibly 
imprinted on my memory, top-ether with the inexpre.« 
sible sorrow stamped on every face. At the buri i 
service all stood reverently bareh 

r>nii'd sneak English joined in f is of "Our 

Father." 



43^ 



FIGHTING THE "BLACK DEATH" IN SYDNEY. 

Br Peecy K. Meggy. 



Just three months ago — on January 19, to be 
precise — four days after the plague was reported to 
have broken out in Adelaide, a lorry-driver at the 
Central Wharf, while driving through the centre 
of Sydney in the hottest part of the day, was sud- 
denly seized with giddiness, headache, and 
stomachic pains, and four hours later with a pain 
in the left thigh, near the groin, where there was 
a continuously aching lump, succeeded by fever, 
thirst, and a bounding pulse. On the following 
day the patient was seen by Dr. Gillies, who had 
worked at the pathology of plague at Cambridge; 
and who, regarding the case as suspicious, reported 
it to the Board of Health. Payne, for that was the 
patient's name, was thereupon visited by Dr. 
Tidswell, the Government Bacteriologist, and later 
on by Dr. Ashburton Thompson, President of the 
Board of Health. 

The Plague. 

A microscopical examination of the enlarged 
thigh-gland made by the former, revealed the pre- 
sence of the Bacillus Pestis Bubonicae, discovered 
independently by Kitasato, the famous Japanese 
bacteriologist, during the Hon* Kong epidemic, 
and by Yersin, whose serum is being extensively 
used in Sydney for inoculation purposes. Three 
mice and two guinea-pigs, inoculated either directly 
or indirectly from Payne, showed the characteristic 
buboes and the plague bacilli; death ensuing in 
each case in from three to four days. 

For months past Payne had been almost ex- 
clusively employed in carting wool from city ware- 



houses to the Central Wharf, but had not handled 
goods discharged from any ship since the previous 
August, and not been below on any ship for at 
least three months. During that period, however, 
four steamships carrying Chinese crews, which had 
all touched at Hong Kong, had lain at the Central 
Wharf, one of them— the steamship Kintuck— 
which left Hong Kong on October 26, having lain 
at the wharf from January 9 to the day after that 
on which Payne was attacked. In fact, the num- 
ber of vessels arriving in Sydney which had touched 
at plague-infected ports, especially at Hong Kong 
and Bombay, since the outbreak of the plague in 
Hong Kong in 1894, has been increasingly great; 
but the Board of Health authorities, after the 
strictest inspection, are able to assert that in no 
instance has even a suspected case been on board. 
The facts stated above are hardly sufficient to 
establish a connection between the advent of the 
Kintuck and the outbreak of the plague. On the 
other hand, if we follow Payne to his home, evi- 
dence pointing in an entirely different direction 
crops up at once. 

Whence Did It Come ? 

Payne was a young, healthy, muscular married 
man, with a wife and three children, who had 
lived for years in a two-storied brick house, 
situated near the harbour in the vicinity of many 
large warehouses, and built — as they say a wise 
man's house should be built — on a rock, which 
sloped rather steeply to the water's edge. The 




MR. R. HICKSON, 

Under-Secretary of Public Works. 
(Member of Sanitary Board.) 



DR. F. TIDSWELL, 
Government Bacteriologist. 



DR. ASHBURTON THOMPSON, 
President N.S.W. Board of Health. 




CHINAMAN'S BEDROOM IN WEXFORD 1 STREET. 




WEXFORD STREET— THE CHINESE QUARTERS. 
[Rehires specially taken by the Government Photographer for the "Review of Reviews." 



43 8 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



house was as clean as a pin, and very tidily kept, 
but " the sewerage was seriously defective." It 
was within the city limits, but not within the 
metropolitan area. The latter is under tbe ex- 
clusive control of tbe Metropolitan Board of Water 
Supply and Sewerage, and the houses to which the 
Board's service has been extended so far— 38,000 
in all, containing a population of 182,000— are in 
every case said to be connected on the most ap- 
proved principles; whereas the houses in the city 
are in too many instances noteworthy for the in- 
efficiency of their sanitary arrangements; a proper 
system of drainage being apparently the exception 
rather than the rule. Indeed, one of the first 
steps taken by the Government, on the outbreak 
of the plague, was to compel all property-owners 
within the city to connect their properties with the 
new sewers where such were laid down, or to put 
their present connections with the old sewers in 
order at their own expense; and a similar course 
is being taken by the numerous suburban munici- 
palities which lie scattered around. 

However, whatever the cause of the original case 
of plague, whether it was imported by way of 
the wharves or was a natural result of the monstrous 
conditions under which many of the people of 
Sydney were allowed to live, the effect was the 
same. The dreaded plague, which, under various 
names, but especially that of the Black Death, had 
ravaged and revolutionised Europe in the four- 
teenth century, had nearly depopulated London in 
the reign of Charles II., had destroyed one-half of 
Bagdad in 1830, and was recently destroying its 
hundreds daily in Canton and Bombay, had ap- 
peared in the metropolis of Australia, and there 
was no telling to what fearful mortality it might 
not give rise. 

The Beginning of the Fight. 

The moment the case was definitely diagnosed 
as one of plague, the patient and the other mem- 
bers of his household, together with four '" con- 
tacts," who had visited the house since the be- 
ginning of the illness, were removed to the Quaran- 
tine Depot at Woolloomooloo Bay, and thence to 
the Quarantine Station at the North Head, where 
they were detained for ten days, a perio 1 which 
has since been reduced to five, the risk of infectiin, 
after the lapse of the shorter period, being con- 
sidered extremely small. In the meantime, the 
patient's house was disinfected, and all those who 
had been in contact with the case, together with 
the members of the Quarantine Staff, were pro- 
tected with Professor Haffkine's prophylactic, 
which was so extensively used during the Indian 
outbreak with the result that the mortality among 
the inoculated was diminished by eighty per cent. 
Payne recovered from the attack, and so strin- 
gent were the measures adopted, that for some 
weeks no further case occurred. 

But the dreaded disease was not to be thus easily 
baulked. The next to be attacked, and the first 
to fall a victim, was T. R. Dudley, a retired ship's 
captain, and the interest in this case centres in the 
fact that, although the house in which he live 3 was 
clean, it was immediately opposite a filthy lane 
in Sussex-street, to the condition of which the at- 
tention of the municipal authorities had been called 
by Mrs. Dudley shortly before her husband was 
taken ill, but, it is alleged, without any action being 
taken, and without even the courtesy of a reply. 



The captain died, and Bates'-lane was cleaned; 
but so filthy was it that the wonder is that under 
such insanitary conditions, which were not only 
allowed, but apparently countenanced by the muni- 
cipal authorities, the plague had not broken out 
before. For the plague feeds on filth. Its home 
is the cess-pool. Without filth there would ap- 
parentlv be no plague. Bates'-lane is a small 
cul-de-sac, about fifty yards in length, not far from 
Bateman's-lane, which resembled it in many re- 
spects. Dr. Ashburton Thompson described it as 
'• a disgrace to any civilised city," and said he did 
not remember ever having seen, even in the most 
notorious parts of London, anything much worse. 
The medical staff went there with instructions to 
inoculate everybody in the lane, and were not only 
met with a point-blank refusal on the part of every 
resident, but with " language " as well! 

How the War was Waged. 

The Government now became fully alive to the 
danger of the situation, and to the necessity for a 
thorough cleansing of the city by an independent 
sanitary authority. A Sanitary Board was accord- 
ingly appointed, consisting of Messrs. Robert Hick- 
son, Under-Secretary to the Public Works Depart- 
ment; P. E. Getting, A.I.S.E., London, Chief Sani- 
tary Inspector to the Board of Health; and L. B. 
Blackwell, C.E., representing the City Council, with 
full powers to deal with the matter. The Board 
immediately appointed Mr. George M'Cready, the 
well-known architect and consulting engineer, its 
executive officer to carry out the cleansing opera- 
tions, and vested him with complete jurisdiction 
over the areas successively quarantined. Mr. 
M'Cready was assisted in his task by Mr. Getting, 
and the work was carried through with the utmost 
expedition. 

In Bombay the people in the infected areas were 
lodged in camps outside the city while their places 
were being cleansed; but in Sydney the opposite 
plan was pursued. The inhabitants of a proclaimed 
area were suddenly barricaded and prevented from 
moving out, whatever their business might be, till 
the block was thoroughly cleansed, which usually 
took from two to three days. A large number of 
labourers were supplied by the Labour Bureau — 
who, by the way, were inoculated to protect them 
from the plague — and all able-bodied men residing 
in the quarantined areas, who were thus temporarily 
deprived of their ordinary means of livelihood, 
were offered work at 8s. a day to assist the con- 
tractor in carrying out his scheme, while some of 
the more experienced were put on as inspectors. 

Work was started on March 27, with about 750 
men, subsequently increased, as occasion required, 
to ever 2,000, who were divided into gangs of six 
men under an inspector and twenty-five under gan- 
gers. The inspectors' gangs worked inside the 
houses, while the other gangs cleaned up the yards 
and alleys, both houses and yards being white- 
washed, fumigated, disinfected, and generally turned 
inside out, and whatever was left of them re- 
turned to their occupiers in a sometimes quite unre- 
cognisable state, and all this with a celerity border- 
ing on the marvellous. Dredges were employed 
in excavating filth which had accumulated at the 
bottom of the harbour, and the underneath timbers 
of wharves were subjected to a deluge of boiling 
water poured on them from a steam jet. Some of 
the old wooden wharves were found in such a rot- 
ten condition that they will probably be removed, 



Revikw of Rkvikws, 
April 15, 1900. 



Fighting the "Black Death" in Sydney, 



439 



K 





■Wkjji* 



KENT STREET, SHOWING QUARANTINE LINE. 



and others substituted, which will probably be con- 
structed on the plan of the stone wharf recently 
erected by the Government at Pyrmont. 

Seven hundred and fifty tons of debris were re- 
moved out of the yards and houses the very first 
day, and punted off to sea. An immense collec- 
tion of old timber, bagging, bedding, hen-coops 
and fowl-houses, was burnt on the street, which 
presented a very unusual and anything but an at- 
tractive appearance while the operations were 
going on. All old structures, disreputable out- 
houses and filthy stables, were either razed to the 
ground or destroyed by fire. Wooden floors and 
planking were taken up and an enormous ac- 
cumulation of filth and dead rats was removed. 
The result of the very first day's work, as Messrs. 
M'Cready and Getting stated in their report, " re- 
vealed a much worse condition of affairs than we 
anticipated when starting operations, and such as 
is almost beyond belief. In fact, any report con- 
taining the actual facts brought to light would 
have been considered as grossly exaggerated, but. 
having seen them, we can vouch for their truth." 

"Purple Patches"! 

Here are a few of the more striking facts un- 
earthed during the progress of the operations. In 
one place used as a kitchen and eating house there 
was a big open cess-pool in the centre of the kitchen 
in a filthy condition. At a butcher's shop in 
Erskine-street, on the floor of the kitchen, which 
was also used as a sitting room, being removed, 
the space underneath was found to be covered with 



sewerage matter to the extent of from six to nine 
ir.ches in depth; while in a corner of the room were 
several casks and tubs containing about two and a 
half tons of putrid salted meat, all of which was : 
of course, removed and punted off to sea. Need- 
less to say the butcher's wife was under the doctor's 
hands. Several tons of equally salubrious material 
were found underneath the flooring of a house in 
Kent-street, which was saturated with damp, the 
family who occupied it being " nearly always ill;" 
while in a blind cellar at an hotel in Sussex-street, 
which the inspectors stumbled across by the merest 
chance, no less than twenty-five tons of filth and 
decomposed matter were found. 

Numbers of houses, especially in Kent-street, the 
notorious Bateman's-lane, Bradley's cottages off 
Sussex-street — five in all — which had no back en- 
trance, no back windows, one water tap, and only 
one closet for the whole terrace, and many other 
" desirable villa residences," in some of the worst 
of which the plague had broken out, were con- 
sidered utterly unfit for human habitation, and 
were recommended to be destroyed. In Bombay 
these houses would have had the significant 
"UHH" (unfit for human habitation) affixed to 
them in large red letters; but the owners of the 
Sydney tenements will probably only know of their 
fate when the sentence of execution has been car- 
ried out. 

The condition of affairs revealed during the first 
fortnight was bad enough, but the climax was 
reached in Passion week, when, at the suggestion of 
the City Council, the Government suddenly de- 



44Q 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



cided to tackle the Chinese quarter. The At- 
torney-General (the Hon. B. R. Wise), who, to- 
gether with the Premier (the Hon. W. J. Lyne), 
has taken the keenest interest throughout in fight- 
ing the plague, gave the necessary instructions, and 
without a moment's warning one of the most 
densely populated corners in Sydney— the notorious 
Wexford-street— was quarantined. A posse of 
forty policemen marched clown to prevent the egress 
of the residents, the street was suddenly sur- 
rounded with barricades, and was placed in a state 
of siege. The Orientals, frenzied at the outrage, 
indulged in the wildest profanity, and clamourei 
for Mr. M-Cready, who very wisely kept out of 
the way, while special constables were told off to 
accompany the inspectors to protect them while dis- 
charging their duty from the attacks of the of- 
fended " Chinks." 

The revelations from this quarter were of the 
mostsensational character. The premises, which fre- 
quently consisted of gambling hells and opium dens, 
were generally in a revolting condition. The sewer- 
age connections were in many cases either utterly 
deficient or indescribably bad. Filth oozed from 
beneath the floors, water and damp sometimes 
drained through the doors to the yard, or where 
there was not even a yard stagnated where it lay. 
Bath-rooms trickled their dirty contents to the 
walls below. In some places residents slept in 
old water closets or next to stables. Houses were 
built over disused wells. In one case a well, twelve 
feet deep, nearly full of water, was found' under- 
neath the floor of a room of the very existence 
of which the tenants professed to be ignorant, and 
there were rooms in which the daylight never 



entered, or entered but by stealth, and where the 
worst of practices were openly carried on. 

" Desirable Villa Residences " ! 

An inspection on Good Friday revealed terraces 
of brick houses and cottages at Exeter-place without 
ventilation, without damp-courses, without closets, 
cr where there were closets these were placed right 
in front of the main entrance, and were in a fear- 
ful state of construction and repair. All of these 
wretched tenements were condemned, and will be 
pulled down as soon as quarters can be found for 
the occupants. One bed-ridden old woman of 
seventy was found covered in rags, living and 
sleeping in a veritable dungeon, fully seven feet 
below the level of Wexford-street, which smelt re- 
voltingly of moist and damp. The inmate, to 
whom that Good Friday inspection was a memor- 
able event, was recommended for removal to an 
asylum. In this strange quarter of the city the 
debauchery of the East and West met on a common 
soil, and produced a compound worse than either, 
because it united the worst characteristics of both. 
Yet it is only fair to the Orientals to state that 
many of the places occupied by the Chinese were 
models of cleanliness, and that the most sensational 
revelations came from the spots where the Yellow 
had joined hands with the White. 

The Cost of It All. 

All the revelations noted above form a striking 
commentary on the policy of retrenchment with 
which the Mayor of Sydney inaugurated his muni- 
cipal reign, and it would be interesting to compare 




EXETER PLACE. 



Review of iikvikws, 
April 15, 1900. 



Fighting the "Black Death" in Sydney. 



441 




s 



* 



A GANG OF CLEANERS AT WORK AT THE FOOT OF KING STREET. 



the few hundred pounds saved at the commence- 
ment of his term of office, by " sacking " the scaven- 
gers, with the £20,000 or £30,000 which are now 
being spent every week in making the city clean. 
This outlay, of course, only represents a tithe of the 
actual expense incurred. The cleansing operations 
entail something more than the mere amount of 
wages paid to the men. Trade has been tem- 
porarily paralysed Businesses have been in some 
cases partially, and in others utterly, ruined. Traffic 
has been diverted. A considerable amount of pro- 
perty, some of it valuable, some of it worthless, 
has been destroyed. The heirlooms and little 
treasures belonging to many " a humble dwelling " 
have been either stolen or lost, and an enormous 
amount of inconvenience has been caused, some of 
which will form the subject of claims which the 
Government will have to make good. Much, how- 
ever, was done to alleviate the distress thus un- 
avoidably caused, and no one in the quarantined 
area can complain of not having had enough to eat. 
since liberal rations were served out to everyone 
who asked. Mr. M'Cready was continually being 
bombarded with claims for damages or requests for 
a pass, and one of the latter was so genuinely pathe- 
tic that it deserves getting into print: — 

" We have been quarantined," wrote a hard-work- 
ing resident, " but are out. Now I had no money to 
live with; five children; and had to pawn a suit of 
clothes, as my husband was out working in the Gas. 
Please, Mr. M'Cready, I beg of you to give me an order 
to get through to the pawnbroker, as it is the only 
suit he has, and has been telegrammed to go up country, 
as his sister is dying. Please to be kind enough, as it 
is a needful case. — Mrs. B." 



By this time, that is to say, up to Passion week, 
104 people had been attacked in Sydney, of whom 
36 had died, and cases were occurring at the rate 
of from one to six or seven a day. This, though 
quite bad enough, is almost insignificant when com- 
pared with the outbreak of typhoid, in which, from 
the commencement of January till March 25, 490 
cases were reported, of which 31 had proved fatal. In 
1898 there were 824 typhoid cases, With 58 deaths, 
and last year 786 cases, with 80 deaths; the disease, 
therefore, being on the increase. Both typhoid 
and the plague originate in filth, so that the clean- 
sing operations necessitated by the outbreak of the 
one will tend to reduce the deaths from the other. 
The Sydney plague has so far, indeed, been of a 
very mild character; as in other parts of the world, 
where the general conditions are far filthier than 
anything recorded in Sydney, the mortality is 
generally from 80 to 90 per cent, of those attacked, 
particularly in the early stages of the disease. 

The Rat Crusade. 

A " king " of the rat-catchers was appointed, to 
whom was assigned the entire charge of the cru- 
sade, and the probability is that in a very short 
time hardly a rat will be left alive. The im- 
portance of this step will be recognised when it 
is remembered that the plague bacillus makes its 
home in inhabited soil, and that the first to be 
attacked are invariably the rats, wno die in thou- 
sands, a sure precedent sign, both in India and 
China, of the coming of the plague, the rats 
communicating the disease to one another, and to 



442 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



the human beings who touch or otherwise come 
in contact with them. The very fleas off the rodent 
convey the disease, and an unfortunate wretch may 
thus be literally "bitten to death," as happened in at 
least four of the Sydney cases, according to an 
official statement by the President of the Board of 
Health. 

An ingenious sketch was shown me the other day 
by a civil engineer, which traced the connection 
between the various outbreaks of plague and the 
rats. About a score of sewers ran into Darling 
Harbour from the city, many of which are unable, 
owing to the low level of discharge, to empty into 
the Bondi Sewer, with the result which may be 
better imagined than described; The plan showed 
the course of the sewers, with their ramifications 
from George-street, in the very heart of the city, 
down the incline across York-street, Clarence-street, 
Kent-street, and Sussex-street, to the water's edge. 
It would seem that the rats have been forced by 
the use of disinfectants, &c, up the sewer into 
the heart of the city. And along the whole course 
of the sewer and its ramifications, wherever the 
rats could emerge, the plague had broken out! 

The invariable association of rats with the plague 
is one of several reasons which tend to prove that 
the plague virus resides permanently in the soil. 
The other reasons are its remarkable geographical 
limitation, in which it differs entirely from diseases 
caused by a floating or purely personal contagion; 
its frequent occurrence in the same place, while a 
neighbouring locality in constant communication 
with it may be free; the almost complete immunity 
of people living in boats — as in the Canton plague; 
its general restriction to the ground floor, so that 
it used to be said that " the plague doesn't go up- 
stairs"; and, finally, the beneficial effects of local 
sanitary measures as compared with the mere pre- 
vention of contagion. 

Mow the Plague Works. 

There are several points about the plague which 
should be specially noted. In the first place there 
are three distinct kinds of plague, each caused by 
the action of the same bacillus, namely, the bubonic, 
the pulmonary, and the septicaemic. The first 
and second are characterised by the swelling of the 
lymphatic and bronchial glands respectively, ac- 
companied by haemorrhage, the " plague pneu- 
monia," as the second is popularly called, being 
almost invariably fatal; while the third, as its 
name implies, is a putrefaction of the blood, but 
unaccompanied by buboes, which, by the way, con- 
sist of a seething mass of bacilli. 

The next point of importance is that the plague 
is not contagious in the ordinary sense of the 
term. It is not caught from the man in the 
street, unless he happens to be actually suffering 
from the plague, in which case he would pro- 
bably not be in the street, but in quarantine. The 
French physicians in Egypt attended thousands of 
patients, and performed many post-mortems, but 
never caught the plague; although one of them, in 
a spirit of bravado, actually wore the clothes of a 
patient who had died of the disease. Infection 
appears to be generally conveyed by persons either 
infected with the disease, or in a preliminary stage- 
but rarely by means of infected objects, although 
infected dust and even flies have been known to 
convey it. The channels of reception of the 



bacillus, according to Kitasato, are the respiratory 
organs, the digestive tract, and inoculation. 

The Way to Escape, 

The best way to avoid the plague is to practise 
personal and domestic cleanliness, and to keep away 
from filthy premises and filthy people. A proof of 
the slight risk of contagion in the ordinary sense 
is the fact that out of 420 " contacts " sent to the 
Sydney Quarantine Station up to the 9th of this 
month, only five were attacked by the disease. 
But when the bacillus once gets a firm hold, the 
stroke is not long delayed. In some cases death 
ensues in a single day, although the duration of 
fatal attacks is generally from three to five days. 
If a patient lives through the week, he will pro- 
bably recover. It is by far the most fatal of all 
known epidemics affecting large numbers, and up 
till six years ago there was no treatment for it 
other than getting rid of the filth by which it was 
engendered. 

Soon, however, we may expect to see the creation 
of a " Greater Sydney," which will be practically 
independent of the ratepayers, and which will have 
complete jurisdiction over the sanitary arrange- 
ments of the city and suburbs. When this has 
been brought about, Sydney will have wiped away 
her reproach, and will be again worthy of being 
called the " Queen City of the South." 




'. MICRO-PHOTOGRAPH OF PLAGUE GERMS. 

The larger rounded bodies are the cells of the spleen of a 
deceased Sydney patient. The smaller oval bodies are 

the plague germs. 
(Enlarged from a micro-photo by Dr. Frank Tidswell.) 




THE FIGHTING OF THE MONTH. 

Br "W. H. Fitchett, B.A., LL.D. 



MARCH 14-APRIL 14. 



Strategy counts for more than tactics in a cam- 
paign, and the reader will be best served by a brief 
description of the strategy of the opposing leaders 
during the month. 

I -THE STRATEGY OF THE CAMPAIGN. 

Lord Roberts entered Bloemfontein on March 
15, after a memorable display of soldiership which 
will give him a place amongst the great com- 
manders of history. In three weeks he had 
•changed the aspect of the campaign! To bor- 
row one of Sir Walter Scott's metaphors, " one 
blast of his bugle-horn was worth ten thousand 
men." That metaphor, indeed, errs by under- 
statement. The British forces in South Africa 
resembled, up to that moment, a body without a 
brain. There was limitless strength and fight- 
ing power, but no co-ordinating intellect; no single 
and masterful will to direct this vast force to a 
wisely chosen end. But in that brief space of 
twenty days Kimberley was relieved; Cronje and 
his army were made prisoners of war; Bloemfon- 
tein was captured, and the hostile forces 
which had girdled Ladysmith so long 
with a zone of fire and iron were driven reeling 
back by a blow struck nearly 300 miles distant! 
An army, no matter how valiant, is but an armed 
and purposeless mob without a great general's 
forain! 



What has been Loid Roberts' strategy since he 
entered Bloemfontein? It is at present unknown, 
or, at least, only half guessed. Moltke, it was 
said, " knew how to be silent in seven languages." 
Lord Roberts is less of a linguist than the great 
German commander, but he has his faculty for 
shrouding his movements beneath a veil of silence. 
With Lord Roberts, however, silence is only a pre- 
liminary to some world-startling shock. When 
the cablegrams from his headquarters grow rare 
and scanty it is a danger signal! Some 
great movement is beginning. Lord Roberts 
cannot well have less than 100,000 men 
immediately under his hand for any stroke he 
contemplates. The total British forces in South 
Africa number 250,000 men, with 500 guns— the 
mightiest force Great Britain has ever sent to tha 
field of battle. Nearly one-tenth of this 
number, or, say, 20,000 men and officers, 
have. been killed, wounded, captured, or 
disabled by sickness. But after allowing for 
the forces in Natal, Cape Colony, Rhodesia, &c, 
there cannot be less than 100.000 free to carry out 
Lord Roberts' aggressive strategy. The essential 
factors of his position are easily told. His ulti- 
mate object is, of course, Pretoria. But war on a 
great scale moves slowly. His cavalry is the most 
effective and valuable part of Lord Roberts' force; 
and French's horsemen, in the dash on Kimberley, 



444 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



and the fierce pursuit of Cronje, were ridden almost 
to a standstill. The three days' ride to Kimberley 
broke down nearly twenty per cent, of the British 
cavalry, and over 1,700 horses were found to be dis- 
abled. The marching and fighting which fol- 
lowed, on the dusty plains betwixt Kimberley and 
Bloemfontein, and under the fierce heat of an 
African sun, wrought still more cruel mischief in 
the British cavalry. No less than 10,000 horses were 
" foundered," or died of fatigue and hardship. The 
British general must wait till his cavalry is re- 
mounted; and by this time some 12,000 fresh horses 
have reached Bloemfontein. 

Why Lord Roberts Waits. 

The popular idea is that Lord Roberts' strategy 
will consist of a simultaneous movement north- 
wards from the two points of Bloeni- 




MAJOR-GEN. SIR F. CARRINGTON, 

To command the combined force for the protection 

of Rhodesia, of which 2,500 Australian 

Bushmen arc to form a part. 



fontein and Ladysmith; and the real ex- 
planation of the delay in active opera- 
tions is found in the fact that Roberts was wait- 
ing for Buller. It is highly improbable, however, 
that this is Lord Roberts' real plan. It would 
mean operating from two bases, separated from 
each other by 200 miles of difficult country. Lord 
Roberts' generalship is — in one respect, at least, — 
of the Napoleonic type. The British commander 
does not scatter his force along a wide front. He 
concentrates. He strikes with overwhelming 



force at some vital point. That Lord Roberta 
will move from a single base, and concentrate, in- 
stead of dividing, his forces, is shown by the fact 
that already large portions of General Buller'Sr 
force have embarked from Durban for East Lon- 
don or Port Elizabeth, and are being hurried up to- 
wards Bloemfontein. 

Lord Roberts' delay is, no doubt, further ex- 
plained by the fact that the Orange Free State has 
bicken out in insurrection in his rear. The British 
general's communications with the sea depend on a 
single line of railway some 450 miles long to Port 
Elizabeth, and over 750 miles to Cape Town. And 
this thread of iron rails, which has for the British 
operations the office which the spinal cord has to 
the limbs of a human body — runs for nearly one- 
half its extent through hostile territory. Lord 
Roberts is a daring commander; but he is cautious 
as well as daring, and he will not undertake any 
great movement until his base and his communi- 
cations with the sea are secure. The twin neces- 
sities of remounting his cavalry and of trampling 
out. all resistance in his rear are, no doubt, the 
reasons why Lord Roberts has spent nearly a 
month in apparent inaction at Bloemfontein. 

But when the British general moves, what will be 
his strategy? That depends, of course, on the 
position and movements of his enemies, and the 
strategy of the Boer generals during the month 
has had, at least, the element of unexpectedness. 

The Boer Strategy. 
It was supposed they would concentrate their 
forces at Kroonstad, on the direct road to Pretoria, 
strongly entrench themselves, and thus bar Lord 
Roberts' advance on the Transvaal capital. But 
they have played a more daring game. They have 
occupied the difficult hill-country to the east and 
south-east of Bloemfontein, within a distance rang- 
ing from thirty to fifty miles of Bloemfontein itself. 
That this strategy was unexpected is proved by the 
surprise and tragedy of Doom Spruit, where Col. 
Broadwood's column rode blindly into a great 
Boer ambush. Yet this movement on the part of 
the Eoer generals ought not to have been a sur- 
prise. It was obviously their wisest, as well as 
their boldest, course. They have secured a strong 
position on Lord Roberts' flank, a strategy which, 
on a small scale, resembles Moore's famous flank 
march in 180S which arrested Napoleon's advance 
on Southern Spain. If Lord Roberts persists in 
his advance on Pretoria, he leaves his long line of 
communications in peril of a deadly flank attack. 
If he advances on Ladybrand to clear his flank, 
he gives up for the time, at least, the advance on 
Pretoria. The Boers, so far, have shown origin- 
ality and skill in their tactics, but their strategy — 
taking the war as a whole — has been noor. As the 



Review of Reviews, 
April 15. 1900. 



The Fighting of thu Month. 



445 



very competent military critic of the " Westminster 

Gazette " puts it: — 

I have never had any great opinions of the strategical 
powers of t»he Boer leaders. Their tactics on the 
field of battle have been good, frequently very good 
indeed, but their strategy has been beneath contempt, 
as was shown by their letting Yule slip through their 
grasp; by the manner in Which they held back from 
any attempt to invade Cape Colony till after we had put 
enough troops there to stop them; by the imbecile 
manner in which they attempted to " counter " Lord 
Methuen's move when they might quite easily have 
bottled him up in Kimberley with Kekewich, and by 
numerous other faux pas from a strategical point of 
view. 

But the strategy now adopted by the Boer gen- 
erals is sound. To occupy positions so near to 
Bloemfontein has a look of successful audacity 
admirably calculated to restore the sinking courage 
of the Free State burghers, and to arrest the stream 
of "surrenders" throughout the Orange Free State. 
Jn this way Lord Roberts' weakest point — his long 



line of communications — is threatened; and the 
flames of insurrection are rekindled far to the 
south of Bloemfontein, and beyond the Orange 
River itself. To hold strong positions on Lord 
Roberts' flank, and to maintain a guerilla warfare 
in his rear — this is the obvious, and indeed the 
wisest possible, strategy of the Boers. And the 
fighting to the south of Bloemfontein, while it has 
been guerilla-like in its methods — a campaign of 
ambushes and surprises, of rapid movements and 
sudden onfalls — has been something more than 
gueriila-like in its scale. At Doom Spruit, at 
Reddesburg, andatWeppener the Boer forces num- 
bered from 2,000 to 5,000 men; and in each case 
they were strong in artillery. 

It may be taken for granted that when Lord 
Roberts moves, he will first destroy, with mobile 
cavalry columns and batteries of " galloper " guns, 
all the Boer commandoes on his flank and rear. 




Middelburg «! 



THF. SCF.NF. OF OPERATIONS. 



446 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



H. THE FIGHTING OF THE MONTH. 
The actual fighting of the month may be briefly 
told in order of time: — 

Karee. 

On March 30 the 7th Division, under General 
Tucker, with part of French's cavalry, had a 
smart engagement with the Boers at Karee, im- 
mediately to the north of Bloemfontein. The 
Boers were 3,000 strong, and held a line of wooded 




GENERAL PIET CRONJE. 

<As drawn for the " Daily Mail.") 



hills, sprinkled in front with clusters of kopjes. 
It was exactly the position the Boer loves. Lord 
Roberts was not present at the fight, but his spirit 
ruled it. It was an affair, on the British side, of 
clever and brilliant manoeuvring. The Boer 
front was searched with artillery- French, with 
his cavalry, swept in a wide curve round the Boer 
right, which he crumpled up with his guns, and 
drove back on the centre. When the whole Boer 
position was thus shaken, the British infantry were 
launched on its front, Colonel Knight, with the 
N.S.W. Mounted Rifles, at the same time attack- 
ing the extreme left of the enemy. This combina- 
tion was overwhelming, and the Boers fell back 
in haste and disorder, with heavy loss, abandoning 
their trenches, constructed with such art as to be 
practically impregnable to a direct attack. 

Doom Spruit* 
Meanwhile, a strong Boer column, under General 
Olivier, was falling back in haste from Colesberg. 
It was in imminent danger of being cut off and 
destroyed or captured as a result of Lord Roberts' 
lightning-like rush from Kimberley to Bloemfon- 
tein. The Boer general had a force of 4,000 men, 
with 18 guns, but be was hampered by a huge 
convoy of 800 waggons. He had to push through 
the interval betwixt Bloemfontein and the Basuto- 
land border as a great fish might flash through the 
mesh of a net; and escape might well have seemed 
impossible. General French, with his horsemen, 
was despatched from Bloemfontein eastward 
to intercept the Boer column; but the 
attempt failed, owing, it is clear, to the ex- 
hausted condition of the horses of the British 
cavalry. Olivier marched at speed, and pushed 
beyond tbe point where French could intersect his 
line of advance, at Winberg. Somewhere in the 
neighbourhood of Ladybrand Olivier was joined oy 
the forces of Commandants Grobler and Lemnier, 
and the united' force, now formidable in scale and 
happy in its position, came under the command 
of General de Wet. 

Then followed a clever stroke of Boer tac- 
tics. A British column was moving to- 
wards Bloemfontein under the command of 
Colonel Broadwood. It included the 10th Hussars, 
the composite regiments of Life Guards, two bat- 
teries of horse artillery, Roberts' Horse, some New 
Zealand infantry, Rimington's Scouts, &c. Col. 
Broadwood's column camped, on the night of 
March 31, at the Bloemfontein water-works, about 
twenty-five miles to the east of Bloemfontein. Two 
miles from the British camp was a deep spruit, or 
gully, known as Doom Spruit. In the darkness 
a strong Boer column moved silently past the 
British camp — which they afterwards declared was 
without sentinels or outposts — and took posses- 



Review ok Rkvikws, 
April 15, 1901 



The Fighting of the Month. 



447 




'■ King."] 



TACK ON GUARD. 



sion of Doom Spruit. Trees and brushwood hid 
their guns and their lines of crouching riflemen. 
In the morning the British moved carelessly for- 
ward, crossed the Modder, and literally walked into 
the trap prepared for them. Rimington's Scouts 
were with the advance guard, but no scouting was 
done. Suddenly a voice called out: " You need go 
no further, you are all prisoners;" and instantly 
from their front, and from either flank, a cruel fire 
was opened on the British. The mules of the wag- 
gons, the horses drawing the guns, were shot down. 
The British had been careless to an almost criminal 
degree, but at least they showed admirable pluck. 
Seven guns of the leading battery were captured, 
but the second battery wheeled round and es- 
caped, being gallantly covered by Roberts' Horse. 
Another ford across the spruit was discovered; the 
remainder of Colonel Broadwood's column, with 
discipline unshaken, crossed by it, and forced their 
way over, or past, the kopjes held by the Boers. 
The news quickly reached Bloemfontein, and Col- 
ville's Brigade, with the Highlanders, marched at 
speed to the rescue, reaching the scene of action, 
after a splendid night march, on Sunday morning. 
The strength of the Boers is calculated variously 
from 10,000 to 12,000, and it shows the splendid 
fighting quality of the British that, caught by such 
a force, and under such circumstances, they yet 
escaped destruction. But they lost seven guns, 
some eighty waggons with their entire baggage, 
while the killed, wounded, and missing amounted 
to 450. 

Tbe blackness of this disaster is lit up with 
gleams of splendid courage on the part of the 
British. The second battery of artillery rode at 
speed out of the hell of the Boer fire, and. getting 
clear, wheeled instantly round, and poured such a 



tempest of grape on the exultant foe as to check 
their advance. Major Booth, of the Northum- 
berlands, with two other officers and a couple of 
privates, held a narrow gap in the road with des- 
perate valour, and actually kept some 500 Boers 
at bay with their shooting, till the shaken British 
column had time to rally. So bravely did a 
squadron of the 6th Dragoons fight, and so heavy 
were their losses, that out of 140 men who went 
into the fight, only ten answered their names at 
roll-call. As the broken battery came at a gallop 
out of the Boer fire, the men of the Australian 
Horse and of the N.S.W. Lancers, who were lying 
down waiting for the moment to charge, leaped to 
their feet and cheered the heroic British gunners. 
Nevertheless, Doom Spruit is a real — if not a 
great — disaster, and is due to that careless cour- 
age, that easy and sauntering contempt 
for his foes so characteristic of the aver- 
age British soldier. Amongst the men cap- 
tured were nineteen New Zealanders belonging to 
Major Robin's detachment. The Queenslanders, 
too, were badly hit, two being killed, two wounded, 
and five captured. 

This gleam of good luck naturally raised the con- 
fidence of the Boers. Reinforcements have 
crowded to General de Wet, and the position he 
holds at Ladybrand has practically become the 
Boer headquarters. Lord Roberts " lies low," and 
watches the gathering force of his enemies on his 
flank with an apparent inertness which puzzles 
many critics. He is probably only too delighted 
to see his enemies gathering on such a scale within 
easy reach of his stroke. It is plainly better to 
have them within thirty miles than 300 mile;. He 
probably hopes, in addition, to tempt them from 
the difficult hills where they are entrenched to 



44 s 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



the level country near Bloemfontein. Then he 
will fling on them the whole strength of his 
cavalry. 

Reddersburg. 

On April 4 another stroke of good fortune befell 
the Boers. A detachment of General Gatacre's 
force, consisting of three companies of the Irish 
Rifles and two companies of the 9th Mounted In- 
fantry, had reached Reddersburg, on their return 
from a reconnaisance towards the Basuto border. 
Reddersburg is only thirty-five miles distant from 
Lord Roberts' headquarters, and only fifteen miles 
to the east of Edenburg, on the southern railway 
line. The detachment, some 600 strong, was with- 
out guns — a fatal omission, for which General Gat- 
acre is justly blamed. The British, apparently, 
expected no attack, and took no precautions, and 
suddenly General de Wet. with 5,000 men and five 
guns, fell upon them. The British held a little 
hill, which gave them no shelter. They were 
without food and water. Furious rainstorms beat 
upon them incessantly. It was a fight of little 
more than 500, without artillery, against 5,000 
with quick-firing guns. The British fought for 
twenty-one hours, till their last cartridge was fired 
and their last crust eaten; then they surrendered. 
Courage is, no doubt, the first of soldierly virtues, 
but it is not the only one. In this case General 
Gatacre underestimated the perils to which his 
detached column was exposed. He sent it out in- 
sufficiently equipped, and he failed to keep touch 
with it. As a fighting leader, there is probably 
no braver man under the Queen's flag than General 
Gatacre; but he has contributed to the war in 
South Africa two of its worst disasters— the bloody 
failure at Stormberg, and the loss of an entire 
column at Reddersburg. As a result, he has been 
superseded in his command, and returns to Eng- 
land. 

Doom Spruit and Reddersburg gave the Boers, 
in a single week, the glory of destroying two small 
British columns, and of capturing nearly 1,000 
prisoners and seven guns. Nobody expected such 
a melancholy postscript as this to the shining record 
of the relief of Kimberley, the surrender of Cronje's 
army, and the capture of Bloemfontein! 

Boshof. 

By way of set-off, Lord Methuen supplied a suc- 
cess brilliant in character, though not on a great 
scale. He fell upon a strong party of Boers at 
Boshof, thirty-five miles to the north-east of Kim- 
berley, surrounded them, and captured or killed 
the entire party. The prisoners, it turned out, 
were all foreign mercenaries in the Boer service, 
French, Germans, and Russians. Its commander — 
who was killed — was Colonel Villebois de Mareuil, 



a French strategist of fame, who has been the 
brains of the Boer army. 

Weppener. 

The Boers, at the moment we write, have ap- 
parently failed in the attempt to destroy another 
isolated British column, commanded by Colonel 
Dalgety. Colonel Dalgety held Weppener, sixty- 
five miles to the south-east of Bloemfontein, with 
a strong detachment of the Cape Mounted Rifles 
and eight guns. He was attacked by a force of 
2,000 Boers and four guns, but held his post with 
stubborn courage, and drove off the enemy with 
severe loss. The Boers were reinforced, and re- 
newed the attack the following day, but were again 
foiled. At the moment we write Colonel Dalgety's 
skilful and gallant defence remains unshaken, and 
promises to be one of the most brilliant episodes 
of the campaign. 

The Siege of Mafeking. 

The siege of Mafeking is still maintained. Colonel 
Plumer fought his way down from the north; 
and, according to one account, actually came within 
fifteen miles of Mafeking. But his force was hope- 
lessly inadequate, and he had to fall back, after 
severs losses. Lord Roberts has sent a message to 
the heroic little garrison at Mafeking, calling on 
them to "hold out until the middle of May;" but 
this message is probably addressed to the Boers 
rather than to Colonel Baden-Powell. It is meant 
to lull the enemy into security until a tempest of 
war breaks on them. A column from the south, 
it seems certain, is marching to the relief of the 
town, though its composition and route are wisely 
concealed. 

The siege of Mafeking is really a picturesque, but 
somewhat irrelevant, episode in the campaign. No 
doubt the town would make a good base for a 
movement on Johannesburg, or on Pretoria, from 
the west; but there is no sign that Lord Roberts 
contemplates any such attack. Mafeking would 
be linked to its base on the sea by a still longer 
and more perilous line of communications than 
Bloemfontein. The Boers would have been wiser 
to let Mafeking alone, or to have been content with 
merely watching it. This policy would certainly 
have set free a considerable force for service else- 
where : — 

The " Daily Mail " correspondent at Mafeking, under 
date February 19, wires: " We have learned that Pre- 
toria is pressing Snyman to try and take Mafeking, and 
then get south to help the Free Staters. They want 
him to explain the cause of the delay. He has been 
for four months 2,000 yards from the town, with a 
large force. Why has he not taken it? Snyman 
can't say; the thing must be Providence, but the Boers 
do not know. We know why old Snyman has not 
done it. It is because he can't. No doubt it is Pro- 
vidence, but we don't forget Baden-Powell." 



Review of Reviews, 
April 15, 1900. 



The Fighting of the Month. 



449 



Never, certainly, was there a defence more in- 
genious and gallant than that by which Mafeking 
has been held so long against the Boer attacks. 
Colonel Baden-Powell's entire force, at the begin- 
ning, did not exceed S00 men; it has shrunk by this 
time to half that number. And yet the defence 
remains unsbaken. For the crowd, Colonel 
Baden-Powell rivals even Lord Roberts, or the 
eilent French, or " Fighting Mac," as the hero of 
the war. 

m — WAR GOSSIP. 

The cablegrams, of course, tell with great 
economy of syllables the bare facts of the war. 
The war correspondents, and the soldiers them- 
selves in their domestic correspondence, All in the 
details; and, in many cases, give battle-pictures, 
and little vignettes of war scenery, of amazing 
interest. The historian of the war fifty years 
hence will be submerged beneath a wide, wander- 
ing flood of literature about it! 

Battle Pictures. 

It is worth while giving some examples of the 

details of the various battle incidents, which linger, 



it is true, weeks behind the cables, but make a 

very picturesque supplement to them. "Banjo' 

Paterson, for example, gives the most terse ami 

vivid picture of the ditch where Cronje was 

brought to bay, and cowered under the British 

shells for ten dreadful days: — 

" Imagine," he says, " an area of clear plain almost 
four acres in extent, bordered by a big, strong-running 
river. On this area pack as many bullock waggons, 
old clothes, arms, ammunitions, dead mules, dead bul- 
locks, saddles, boxes, harness, gun-carriages, rugs, bed- 
ding, and the empty boxes and tins out of a grocery 
store; intersect it with trenches five feet deep and two 
feet wide, and fill these trenches with a similar litter; 
then hurl all these things indiscriminately about till 
they get well mixed up; over all, like a cloud, hang a 
smell, evil beyond credibility, from the decaying animals; 
populate this gehenna with 3,000 or 4,000 people, includ- 
ing scores of sick and wounded, who scarcely dare leave 
these trenches day or night, and you have a faint idea of 
Cronje's laager as it has been for the last few days. 

How Cronje Surrendered. 

The actual scene of Cronje's surrender, again, is 

told graphically by a correspondent of the " Age": 

Cronje's surrender was quite the most dramatic 
scene in the whole campaign, so far as it has gone. I 
never saw anything more absorbingjy interest- 
ing. The Boer commandant soon after six 
o'clock in the morning emerged from the laager, riding 




"TOMMY" POSTS HIS CHOCOLATE BOX. 

" Tommy" soon ate his royal chocolate, and the day of its arrival saw him at the post office sending his 
box home. It cost him 2s. lOd. to send it by registered post, and the men of the army post office 
corps were kept busy till 2 a.m. the next day dealing with the packages. 

(From photo by special correspondent of the " King.") 



45Q 



The Review of Reviews, 



April 15, 1900. 



a grey horse. Alongside him rode his secretary, Keizer, 
bearing a white flag, and an interpreter. General 
Pretyman went out from our lines to- meet him, and 
conducted him to the Commander-in-Chief's quarters. 
Lord Roberts, who was standing at his arbour door just 
then, advanced five yards, and offered his hand to the 
Boer commandant. Cronje took it, but not too eagerly. 
In dress he was about as much like a military com- 
mandant as a Jewish Rabbi is. He is short and ex- 
cessively broadly built, wears a hard felt hat of Quaker 
pattern, long brown walking coat, reaching down to 
his knees, loose, baggy trousers, turned up 
at the bottom, and ordinary walking boots. 
In his right hand he carried a jambok, with 
which he continually slapped his leg. He smoked a 
cigar quite nonchalantly all the time. 

Lord Roberts, courteous and urbane, as though doing 
honour of his own house to a distinguished stranger, 
bowed Cronje to a seat, which had been placed for 
him opposite the arbour. He dismounted and sat, 
throwing one leg loosely over the other, and puffed 
steadily at his cigar. From time to time, as con- 
versation progressed, he slapped his boots with the jam- 
bok, and spat out some tobacco juice, considering 
hard all the time. 

At last Cronje, after a good deal of spitting and swish- 
ing at his trousers, snapped out from between his set 
teeth, " Yah." He refused to speak in English dur- 
ing the interview, although I believe he understands 
it thoroughly. Cronje remained at headquarters, while 
his secretary rode back to communicate to the Boer 
troops the result of the confab. Arriving at the 
trenches he spoke to the second in command, and im- 
mediately from all sorts of odd nooks and corners 
emerged crowds of Boers, with their women and chil- 
dren wringing their hands and bemoaning their hard 
lot w r ith bitter tears. They came out from their bur- 
rows for all the world like ants from their heaps. The 
river bank was alive with them — all sorts and con- 
ditions. Even children in arms had been admitted. 
From the far side of the river they had to cross a deep 
drift waist-high. Over they came in hundreds, hus- 
bands carrying wives over on their backs; fathers 
with children on shoulders, rifles and trousers under 
their armpits. All had divested themselves of trousers 
to make the crossing. 

The "March Past" at Ladysmith. 
Of another memorable incident, the relief of 
Ladysmith, the London " Standard " gives a very 
thrilling account. Buller's troops made a stately 
" march past " the leaders of the long-beleaguered 
garrison: — 

The van Was led by the Dublin Fusiliers, who had 
earned the honour by their losses and their gallantry. 
Of the original battalion only 400 remain. 

Sir George White and his staff, on horseback, took 
up their position in front of the Town Hall, whose 
shattered tower and broken -walls formed a fitting back- 
ground for the historic spectacle. The pipes and drums 
of the Gordon Highlanders played past each battalion 
of the Relief Column as it came up. Sir Redvers 
Buller and his staff rode at the head of the troops, with 
an escort of Irregular Horse. Sir Charles Warren 
followed, at the head of the Fifth Division, and after 
General Barton's Brigade came General Lyttelton's Divi- 
sion, the commander of which came in for special recog- 
nition, his fame having preceded him. The artillery 
and howitzer battery were also heartily acclaimed, and 
a ■warm reception was extended to the Naval Brigade 
and their guns. Captain Lambton had previously gone 
out to greet them. Each regiment marched past in re- 
view order, and, as they passed the Town Hall, raised 
cheers for Sir George White, who was manifestly much 
affected. The spectacle was indeed one that no man 
could witness without emotion. No sight could be more 
soul-stirring than this meeting of the two comrade 
forces — one travel-stained, war-worn, yet full of strength; 
the other visibly weakened by privation. If the res- 



cuers were more demonstrative than those they had de- 
livered, the fact must be ascribed to the exhaustion of 
the garrison, and to the comparative scarcity of civilian 
onlookers, of whom only a few now remain in the town. 
The Boer prisoners witnessed the triumphal entry from 
the balcony of the gaol. 

Mr. Harding Davis, in a telegram to the " Mail," 
says: The entrance of General Buller was as affecting 
as the Jubilee procession, as magnificent as the Czar's 
entrance into Moscow, as full of enthusiasm as Admiral 
Dewey's welcome to New York. Twenty-two thousand 
Tommies — lance, foot, and the gunners, Irregular Horse, 
colonials, bluejackets, and Indians — blistered and tanned, 
caked with mud and bloodstains, as ragged as sweeps 
— passed for three full hours before General White, 
cheering, laughing, shouting, and tossing their helmets. 
The emancipated, yellow-faced garrison whose loose khaki 
told of the weeks of starvation, cheered them in return. 
. . . . The two battalions of Devons, who had sep- 
arated last in India five years ago. broke ranks and 
rushed at old comrades. . . . The faces of the 
besieged are yellow, the skin is drawn sharply over the 
cheek bones, the uniforms hang in wrinkles, the eyes 
are hectic and staring, but there is so much more pluck 
in them than fever that one does not dare to sympathise. 
They carry their sufferings jauntily, but under the 
mask of habitual British indifference. One has only to 
offer an officer a cigar, or a biscuit to a Tommy, to find 
a starving man. 

What the Siege Cost. 

The heroic garrison of Ladysmith suffered, dur- 
ing the siege, in a degree hardly to be realised. 
The regiments, according to the correspondent of 
the " Standard," when Buller rode into the city, 
were only a shadow of the fine force which origin- 
ally held the town: — 

Hardly a man in it but bears evidence of the physical 
sufferings and mental torture of these weary, wasted 
weeks. Since the investment we have lost in action 
sixteen officers and 162 men; the casual bombardment 
has killed thirty-five officers and men, and wounded 
twenty officers and 168 men ; forty-seven officers and 
360 men — of whom ninety-four have since died — have 
been wounded in action; and disease has accounted for 
476 more — a figure that implies a greater loss of life 
and permanent injury to health than in all the battles, 
assaults, and sorties from Talana Hill down to the date 
of our relief. As many as 8,424 passed through the 
hospitals, and the daily average under treatment ranged 
from 1,500 to 2,000. The once dashing Cavalry Brigade 
has practically ceased to exist. 

It may be added that, in suffering and valour, the 
relieving force was quite equal to even Sir George 
White's band of much-enduring heroes. Buller's 
army was only 25,000 strong; and the relief of 
Ladysmith cost it, in killed and wounded, 5,000 
men and officers, or one-fifth of its whole number. 

A bit of curiously interesting copy, again, is the 
interview with Sir George White which Mr. Win- 
ston Churchill was fortunate enough to get. It 13 
not often that the interviewer bags such a prize as 
Sir George White, as he emerges from the defence 
of Ladysmith. Here are some extracts: — 

"How I Defended Ladysmith." 

" The knowledge which we had bought of the long 
range of the Boer guns convinced me that it was im- 
perative to have an extended line of defence, other- 
wise we should have been in such a small area pounded 
to death. 



Review of Reviews, 
April 15, 1900. 



The Fighting of the Month. 



45i 




Black and White."] 



GENERAL PIET CRONJE. 



Captured by Lord Roberts of Kandahar, at Paardeberg, February 27, 190C — 
the Nineteenth Anniversary of Majufca. 



45' 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



" My lines are now fourteen miles in circumference. 

" Along several of the sections we could only at one 
time spare 200 men to a mile, and that is scarcely the 
recognised proportion." 

The General explained how the extensive lines which, 
by spreading the bombardment over a large area, dilut- 
ing it, as it were, enabled them to live comparatively 
healthily yet constituted a serious danger to the 
defence, because they were so weakly held. "I would 
have liked to hold Bulwana Hill," he said, " but I dared 
not extend any further, though if we could have held 
Bulwana there would have been an end to the bom- 
barding. It was better, however, to endure the shells 
than to run the risk of being stormed. 

" Because my lines were so extensive I was compelled 
to keep all my cavalry in Ladysmith. Used in conjunc- 
tion with an elaborate system of telephones, they became 
very mobile, and were almost my only reserve. In half 
an hour I could throw 3,000 good men to any threatened 
point. We learned the value of this system on January 
6." 

Sir George White said by one means or another he 
would have held out until April 2, though this would 
have involved the death of most of the native population 
from starvation, and of the sick from want of nourish- 
ment. Then he would have fired off all the ammuni- 
tion, burned the stores and munitions, and any soldiers 
who were fit to crawl five miles would have sallied 
out to make a show of resistance and avoid formal 
capitulation, which none of the generals would even 
have contemplated. 

•' I regret Nicholson's Nek," said General White. 
" Perhaps I was rasa then, though it was my only 
chance of striking a heavy blow. But I regret nothing 
else. It may be that I am an obstinate man, but 
if I had the last five months over again I would not, 
with but one exception, do anything but what I have 
done." 

The Boer Attack on Caesar's Hill. 

Mr. Donald Macdonald, in the " Argus," gives 
a very fine account of the desperate attack the 
Boers made on Ladysmith — a fight of fourteen 
hours, urged with furious valour; but repelled 
•with a cool and obstinate daring unsurpassed in 
the history of warfare: — 

How the Boers Came On, 

The night was very dark, and the Imperial Light 
Horse sentries, hearing a slight rustling in the brush 
in front of them, challenged. The reply, "A friend," 
came in excellent English, but instantly the enemy 
opened fire, and the sentry was killed. A25 
the Boers came on, Lieutenant Walker, who 
had a Hotchkiss, opened fire. They dropped for shelter 
at every shot, and the delay gave the Light Horse 
time to line the inner crest of the hill, the Hotchkiss, 
after about a dozen rounds, being withdrawn to the re- 
doubt. About twenty Highlanders and King's Royals 
came to their support, and there on the extreme right 
of Waggon Hill a grim and deadly fight went on for four 
hours, the defenders being cross-fired at a distance of 
not more than thirty yards. Quite 500 Boers came to 
the assault on that side, yet the little band of Britons, 
lessening every moment, held the post, which was the 
key of the position, with splendid tenacity. The Light 
Horse have done many fine things in the campaign, 
but they will never do more for their country than dur- 
ing those few hours of darkness on the morning of the 
Otii of January. Briton and Boer lay close fifty yards 
apart, each keenly on the look-out for his enemy, and 
jfter daybreak, "when the light increased, the casual- 
ties were heaviest. One Dutchman, believed to be 
Ardendall, of Harrismith, carried a particularly deadly 
rifle. In turn he shot Lord Ava mortally through the 
temple, Lieutenant Palemon through the spine, killing 
him instantly. Captain Lee Smith through the arm, 
and put a bullet through Captain Fowler's hat. In his 
•eagerness he exposed himself slightly, and Lee Smith 



shot him dead through the side. Lord Ava, a fine, 
athletic young fellow, and a son of the Marquis of 
Dufferin, was acting as galloper to Brigadier^General 
Hamilton. He carried a sporting magazine rifle, and 
had just put his head over the rock to fire at a Boei 
when he was hit. He uttered the one word " Done," 
and rolled away from the rock. In this four hours' 
murderous work no fewer than fourteen officers went 
down, dead or wounded, and at times there was con- 
fusion as to the command. In this emergency Lieu- 
tenant Digby Jones, of the Engineers, who had been 
supervising the erection of the gun, went into the fight- 
ing line, and as the Boers came into the sangar he 
shot four of them dead just outside the wall. I saw 
these men lying where they fell later in the morning, 
and amongst them were Field-Cornet Viljoen, of Harri- 
smith, and Acting-Commandant Van Wyk, two grizzled 
old Boers, w^ho had come forward with all the im- 
petuosity of youth. 

IV— THE OUTLOOK. 

The fighting of the month illustrates the dour 
and stubborn courage of the Boers — a courage 
largely due — as far as their rank and file are con- 
cerned — to their ignorant contempt of British sol- 
diership, and to their equally ignorant belief — 
carefully nurtured by their unscrupulous leaders — 
that tbey are fighting for their farms and for their 
freedom, and will lose both if they are beaten. 
But the unexpected gleams of success which have 
shone on the Boer arms do not alter the real land- 
scape of the campaign. The Boers lost, in a single 
week, G,000 prisoners and their best fighting gen- 
eral, Cronje. They failed — at Kimberley and at 
Ladysmith — in the two objects on which they had 
expended their utmost strength. They have lost, 
by sickness and the strain of war, General Joubert, 
the one skilled general they possessed; and General 
Louis Botha, his successor, will certainly not 
supply the place of " Slim " Joubert. The British 
losses, from all causes, up to April 7 are officially 
reported to be 17,701. But the Boer casualties 
up to the same date were certainly not less. The 
loss of 18,000 men to Great Britain is a trifle; the 
loss of the same number to the Boers means the 
wiping out of one-fifth, or one-sixth, of their entire 
force. 

President Kruger blusters. He will bombard 
Bloemfontein, he announces, " within five days " — 
a date long since past! — and will shoot all the 
Free State burghers who have surrendered. Pre- 
sident Steyn shrieks in even shriller strains. He 
will bury the British prisoners in the depth of the 
Johannesburg mines. Before Pretoria is captured, 
he declares, things will happen to astonish man- 
kind! The Boer casualties, he says, amount to 
only 800. while the British have lost 64,000! All 
this is, of course, mere angry and half feminine 
shrieking, and proves how sore are the straits, how 
bitter the wrath, of the Boers. The month has 
been, for the British, a pause; a time of prepara- 
tion for a new campaign. Next month will be a 
time of great events. 




A MACHINE GUN IN A TRENCH. 

Each of the Forts which surround Modder River Camp is supplied with one machine gun, and this 

photo shows how it is worked. 
(From Photo by the Special Correspondent of the " King.") 




" Sphere. 

4 



A COLUMN ON THE MARCH. 




CRONJE AND HIS STAFF BEFORE LADYSMITH. 
(Cronie with Whip.) 




HOLLANDER CORPS MARCHING OUT OF BLOEMFON TEIN. 




" Sphere. - '] 



SURPRISING A BOER PICKET AT SPION KOP. 



Previous to the fight, a flanking party of Natal Carabiniers, Natal Police, Imperial Light Horse, and 
South African Light Horse, under the command of Major Graham, discovered a strong Boer picket at 
Acton Homes coming towards them with the evident intention of taking possession of a kopje towards which 
our forces were also making. The Boers, quite unaware of the presence of the British, crept steadily on while 
our scouts signalled for our men to come on with all speed, which they did. Gaining the kopje in advance 
of the enemy, our men lay in wait for them until they wee within 400 yards. Then the Colonials poured a 
fire on the Boers that threw them into complete confusion, killing over 40, while 23 were made prisoners. 




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ADVANCING IN EXTENDED ORDER. 



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AMBULANCE WORK. 



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These photographs illustrate in a remarkable manner the wa}' in which our men advanced 

and fought at the battle of Colenso. 







A PHOTOGRAFHIC PUZZLE: HOW IS IT DONE? 
The s.s. " Eurvalus," carrying Victorian Bushmen, sailing up Collins Street, Melbourne. 




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HAULING THE GUNS UP COLES KOP. 

The men of "B" Company, Essex Regiment, thirty men to each rope, ninety in all, dragging 
up the guns to the top of Coles Kop, 1,400 feet above the plain. 




SENDING UP AMMUNITION FOR THE GUNS ON COLES KOP. 

The distance is 1,400 feet from the camp on the plain below. Half-way up tlie hill the load is 

guided from the projecting rock to its destination. 




HIS FIRST AND LAST SHOT. 

The extraordinary eagerness of our men to fight is shown in the above picture, which illustrates an in- 
cident that occurred to a Lancashire Fusilier in action near Spearman's Camp. He was wounded before he 
had time to get a shot at the enemy, and could not raise his rifle. Two of his comrades, at his request, 
held up his arms so that he could at least have a shot at the enemv. He pulled the trigger, and fell back 
fainting into their arms. 




LORD ROBERTS' SON URGING THE DRIVERS WHO VOLUNTEERED TO RESCUE 

THE GUNS. 

Lieutenant Roberts, who died three days after the battle, was buried with fire soldiers, each in separate 

graves, close to Chieveley Railway Station.— (" Sphere.") 




A SUCCESSFUL RAID: BRITISH SCOUTS AND KAFIR BOYS CAPTURING A HERD 
OF BOER CATTLE NEAR THE MODDER RIVER. 












HOW THE PEERAGE HAS SUFFERED BY THE WAR. 



1. — The Earl of Ava, Son of the Marquis of Dufferin and 

Ava. (Died of Wounds, Ladysmith.) 
2. — Captain the Hon St. Lkoer Jkrvis, Son of the late 

Viscount St. Vincent. (Wounded, Colenso.) 
3.— Major Count Glkichen, a Relative of H.M. the 

Queen. (Wounded. Modder River.) 
4.— The Hon. 6. B. Portman, Youngest Son of Viscount 

Portman. (Dangerously 111 in Ladysmith.) 



5. — Liei .'tenant THE Hon. E. Lygon, Son of the late Earl 

Beauchamp. (Wounded, Modder River.) 
6.— Major tiik Hon. W. LambtOX, Son <>f the late Earl of 

Durham. (Wounded, \la^. r-iontein ) 
7.— Lieiiknan i Viscount Acheson, Son and Heir of the 

Earl of Gosford. (Wounded, Modder River.) 
8. — Major the Hon. N. de C. Dalrvmple Hamilton, Son 

of the Earl of stair. (Wounded, Belmont ) 



9.— Lieutenant the Hon. C. Willouoiiby, Son of the Earl of Ancaster. (Wounded, Belmont ) 




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!2i 



Review of Reviews, 
April 15, 1900. 



469 



A CHOIR OF CRITICS ON THE WAR. 



I. — What England is Fighting For : 

The Marquis of Lorne, in the " North 

.A ME HI CAN EeVIEW." 

No talk of Boer piety, bravery or weakness will 
avail in the long run. The fanatics of the In- 
quisition were brave and pious enough, but they 
found progress too much for them. Boers, like 
Inquisitors, would shut out knowledge by refusing 
to allow the teaching of. English beyond elementary 
school standards. They have laid on iniquitous 
taxes, while they will not touch with their little 
finger any State financial burden. They have shown 
an insolent contempt when any redress of griev- 
ances was demanded. They forbade anyone but 
themselves to carry arms. They made their judges 
subordinate to their politicians. The grievances 
were severe enough to make any free people rise 
in revolt long before exasperation produced the ill- 
advised Jameson Raid. It was their purpose to 
grow rich and powerful at the expense of free 
government. Religious intolerance and civil in- 
tolerance bred of ignorance made them believe that 
they could drive the Uitlander away from their own 
confines, which were to be extended to the sea, 
that their land should be a power among the 
nations. 

This was their ambition before the Raid; it is 
their ambition now — one Africander nation, under 
the backward rule which sees no good in anything 
but serfdom for the blacks, inferiority for the 
British and other Uitlanders, subordination of jus- 
tice to the caprice of the President and his council, 
a maimed public intelligence and general back- 
wardness in all things, except in making the crafty 
and tyrannical the lords of the citizens coming 
from more progressive countries. 

Can this policy be expected to succeed? Ought 
it to prosper or to awaken any sympathy? 

Is it selfish only on England's part to act as 
fighting parent in defence of the offspring, not 
alwayp of her loins, but of her laws? If it be sel- 
fishness, it is selfishness of a type unknown before 
in the world, and the cause of good to others than 
herself. It gives the open door of commerce to all 
people. It gives to those who pride themselves 
on political connection with her a liberty, not only 
of home laws, but a liberty to act without her in 
treaties of commerce. A voluntary alliance is all 
she reaps from the bond. She thinks this enough 
believing it will continue. But it is a "selfishness" 
5 



based on self-sacrifice in war for those who are not 
pledged to war for her. She has defended by her 
fleets their infant liberties. Selfishness is a foolish 
word for the conduct of any of the members of a 
great alliance, strengthening every decade in the 
invigorating air of a mutually protected freedom. 
At all events, such a selfishness is one that any 
people must fight for, and if they did not they 
would be worthy only of the contempt of mankind. 
We who are the sowers of freedom have a right 
to reap the harvest, and we prefer to have the envy 
and malice rather than the contempt of those who 
have not ploughed the straight furrows we have 
made. 

II.— Is England Right : 

Captain Mahan, in the " North American 
Eeview." 

In my opinion, the question who declared war is 
immaterial, except for the moral effect upon the 
sentiment that condemns all war, judges mainly 
by feeling and preconception, and looks little into 
causes. Briefly stated, the argument in my mind 
runs thus: There were in the Transvaal some 60,000 
Uitlanders and 30,000 Boers of an age fit for suf- 
frage. Of the former the great majority were 
British subjects. They were oppressively mis- 
governed, and were denied both franchise and re- 
presentation. In a Volksraad of twenty-eight 
there were from their district only two, in the 
choice of whom they had no adequate voice. Thej 
raised the revenue, from less than a million, to 
twenty million dollars. Their appeals for good ad- 
ministration and for fair treatment were disre- 
garded. They had entered the country by en- 
couragement of the Government, many of them at 
a time when five years' residence conferred the 
franchise; but before they c^uld obtain it the period 
was increased to fourteen years. The laws were 
unstable and easily altered; confused, purposely or 
not, so that the difficulties of qualifying were enor- 
mously increased. 

The Appeal to England. 
Unable to become citizens, unprotected, and un- 
able politically to protect themselves, they appealed, 
as every domiciled foreigner does, to their home 
Government. Innumerable complaints cumbered 
the files and embarrassed the relations of the two 
States. Agitation spread throughout South Africa, 
defining itself on lines of race feeling, never wholly 



470 



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April 15, 1900. 



extinguished, and threatening the deplorable anta- 
gonisms that thence arise. The elements of a con- 
flagration were all there, and the atmosphere ris- 
ing to the kindling point. To compose the trouble, 
Gieat Britain suggested a plan eminently reason- 
able, unfair only to the Uitlanders, to whom it gave 
far less than all white men throughout South Africa 
receive at British hands, and she refused to accept 
as satisfactory anything less than the minimum 
of remedy; for let it be continually remembered 
that the franchise was sought, not mainly as an 
act of justice, but as the most promising means of 
escape from a position become unendurable. 

There is not an American pro-Boer partisan that 
would have endured for six months the conditions 
of the Uitlanders without appeal to his Govern- 
ment, if it were in a position to aid. 

That race differences were at the bottom of the 
war is an interesting philosophical explanation, and 
has its value. It is true, indeed, in great part, as 
a fact; for I trust no American or English com- 
munity in the present day could, without its own 
blood boiling in its veins, give to any indwellers 
such treatment as the Boers have given the Uit- 
landers. But whatever part race differences have 
played, it has been as an ultimate cause, not as a 
proximate. The occasion of the war has been as 
described. 

Was there a Boer Conspiracy? 
Whether there was any widespread organised 
conspiracy to supplant British rule by Dutch is 
a matter only of inference; but it appears to me be- 
yond doubt that a considerable number of Boers 
throughout South Africa cherished that purpose, 
consciously, and had succeeded in setting in motion 
feelings and conditions— of which the Transvaal 
was the centre — that would, unless abruptly 
checked, result in the subversion of British rule. 
We in America, who know the history of Seces- 
sion, know to what lengths small beginnings, ably 
guided, can go. The political complexion, tenure 
and stability of South Africa, however, are not a 
concern of the British Isles only, but of the British 
Empire. My professional opinion does not attach 
supreme, exclusive, naval importance to the Cape 
route as compared with that of Suez; but the mass 
of sound British opinion does, and its commercial 
value is beyond dispute. To India and to Australia 
it is of the first consequence; to Great Britain and 
to Atlantic Canada hardly less. The Cape is one 
of the vital centres in the network of commutica- 
tions of the whole Empire. To let it go, wrenched 
away through culpable remissness, would be to 
dissolve the Empire; and justly. 

Emgland's Duty. 
A government is not worthy to live that, having 
shown to all its subjects the impartiality and 



liberality which Great Britain has to British and 
Dutch alike throughout South Africa, should 
supinely acquiesce in the conditions of the Trans- 
vaal, as depicted, or fail to take heed that the 
Dutch Africander, as a class, has so little learned 
the lessons of political justice and true 
liberty that his sympathies are with the Boer op- 
pressor rather than with the Uitiander oppressed. 
Under such conditions it would have been imperial 
suicide to have allowed the well-known, though 
under-valued, military preparations of the Trans- 
vaal to pass unnoticed, defiant oppression to con- 
tinue, and race disaffection to come to a head, 
until the favourable moment for revolt should be 
found in a day of imperial embarrassment. To 
every subject of the Empire the Government owed 
it to settle at once the question, and to establish ita 
own paramonntcy on bases that cannot be shaken 
lightly. 

III. — What Is at Issue in the Fight : 

Br Gteoege F. Becker, U.S. Geologist, in 

THE " POBUM." 

My information as to affairs in South Africa is 
not wholly derived from books or periodicals. In 
1896 I spent several months in the Transvaal. Uit- 
iander and Boer alike were kind to me. I studied 
grievances as an eyewitness, and saw how my 
friends fared in Pretoria gaol. I" repeatedly heard 
the Boer side of disputed questions, as well as the 
other; and I discussed at length with President 
Kruger the franchise and other matters. For a 
specific purpose, I acquainted myself as far as I 
could with the conditions then prevailing, and their 
causes, and have since kept myself fairly well in- 
formed of the course of events. 

It never seemed to me doubtful that the Boers 
would be good men at reconnaissance work, good 
judges of positions, and stubborn fighters; but 
they have also displayed tactical ability and gen- 
eralship which have astonished most observers. 
They have shown qualities so admirable as to prove 
that their destruction would involve the loss to 
the world of a valuable strain. It remains to be 
considered which of the combatants is in the right 
and deserves American sympathy. 

The Boers are fighting for race domination, for 
the enthralment of industry, for the maintenance 
of a social condition which is mere semi-civilisa- 
tion. The English are fighting to obtain for 
British subjects in the Transvaal no greater rights 
than all white foreigners enjoy in every portion of 
the British Empire and in the United States: the 
right of franchise on reasonable terms, reasonable 
industrial 'conditions, and liberty to be civilised 
after the manner of Anglo-Saxons. 

There are some who think that the Boer com- 
munity has a right to complete control of its own 



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A Choir of Critics on the War. 



47i 



territory, and to be as uncivilised or as tyrannical 
as it may choose. But this is an error. There is an 
international right corresponding to the right of 
eminent domain. All rights are enjoyed either by 
nations or by individuals on the tacit understand- 
ing that they be exercised with due consideration 
for the rights of neighbours and of the greater pub- 
lic. The Boers are attempting to arrest the march 
of civilisation, to hamper industry, and to retard 
education. 

The Battle of Civilisation. 

England is fighting the battle of civilisation. A 
State may not oppress the subjects of other Powers, 
nor commit injustices under the shelter of petti- 
fogging interpretations of treaties or conventions. 
This it may not do because there is no interna- 
tional police court which will uphold legal quibbles 
and evasions. England is fighting for an honest 
interpretation of the Convention which established 
the South African Republic. 

No one on earth values freedom more than the 
Boers; but, much like the early New England Puri- 
tans, they regard it as a treasure to be protects*! 
jealously lest someone else should share it. They 
want a monopoly of the rights of freemen. They 
are fighting for freedom to deny freedom to others, 
to establish a corruption of blood which shall ex- 
clude the Anglo-Saxon race from what the Boers 
consider their heritage. 

In spite of their picturesque medievalism, and 
the gallantry of their attack of a vast Empire, the 
Boers are wrong. The British are fighting for 
ideas most dear to the American heart — ideas for 
which, under analogous conditions, the United 
States would fly to arms. They deserve our moral 
support and cordial good wishes. At present 
they wish nothing more. It is, however, in my 
opinion, a great mistake to suppose that they will, 
or should, make peace with the Boers until they 
can dictate terms from Pretoria. Before that time 
comes we may have an opportunity of reciprocating 
the service the British Government rendered us not 
long ago. The end of it all is certain. The Boers 
will have greater freedom and better government 
than their own oligarchy has ever given them; the 
rights of all men. white or black, will be better 
respected in South Africa than they have been 
heretofore: the British Empire will be knit closer 
by the participation of the colonies in Imperial 
affairs: and the army will have undergone a valu- 
able, though bitter and bloody, experience. 



IV. — For How Much a General Counts: 

"Loxnox Spectator." 

How much would each of the one hundred and 
eighty thousand armed men now fighting for Bri- 
tain in South Africa willingly pay to be quite sure 



that his Commander-in-Chief was a thoroughly 
competent man; would a farthing a day from each 
be considered an extravagant contribution? Every- 
body knows it would not, but that apparently in- 
finitesimal sum means a salary for tne general of 
£80,000 a year. That very simple proposition is a 
final answer to Mr. Burns' argument that do man 
is worth more than £500 a year, and it is also a 
rough measure of the value to an army of a suffi- 
cient brain at its head. 

The truth is, that value is incalculable. Until 
it is organised an army, however perfect it? dis- 
cipline, is a mob, hushed it may be in expectancy, 
but still a mob, and when it is organised it is useless 
till the man appears who can utilise it aright. Ex- 
rerience is valueless if it is misapplied, bravery 
is worse than useless if it only increases slaughter, 
even self-devotion only exalts the individual until 
it is well directed. Just look at the scene before 
us. Millions were expended, thousands of lives 
were given for the country, the world rang with 
stories of British valour, and we were left just 
where we were, face to face with the enemy, but 
UDable to drive them from our soil, and believed 
by foes and friends alike to be incapable of perform- 
ing the task which, nevertheless, remained impera- 
tive. The Cabinet sent out two competent men 
to command the crowd, and in six weeks the whole 
scene is changed, the crowd has become a great 
mobile amy, the enemy is flying over the border, 
and all enemies, sullen or admiring, reconsider 
the situation, and think that the smashing of the 
English must be postponed to a more favourable 
opportunity. Are not those two men worth the far- 
things we have mentioned? We leave the answer 
to those whom they are leading, and who, because 
they are so led, are becoming victorious soldiers. 

Educating Our Generals. 
Why are we making these very obvious remarks? 
Because the reading of much history and the ob- 
servation of many campaigns has convinced us that 
the British people, which comprehends some things 
about war very well, has never fully realised what 
the value of a generalissimo to his army is, and, 
while spending blood and treasure like water, will 
allow the chief to be selected almost without watch- 
fulness. Every general is the same In their eyes, 
if only he is brave and " experienced." Until 
disaster occurs they see no difference between an 
astute and cautious leader, like Lord Hardinge, 
and a dense Paladin with the heart of a lion and 
the skill of a buffalo, like Lord Gough. "Give them 
the cold steel, boys," he used to cry; and there are 
scores of generals in the service who, till the Boers 
woke them out of their dreams, still thought him, 
even after Chillianwallah, " quite right." The 
English, who watch their statesmen as a French 



472 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



author watches his " human documents," never 
watch their generals at all except in the field, know 
nothing of their " records," and will suffer any- 
body who is " recommended " to be entrusted with 
their children's lives. They are patient of failure, 
no doubt — not one man has been superseded yet 
for all that has happened — and that is to their 
credit, but they display as to choosing a thick- 
witted and apparently incurable carelessness which 
is the despair of their historians. They said 
nothing when Leicester was sent to the Low Coun- 
tries, and never recognised Churchill until he had 
beaten Louis XIV. They would send, or rather 
allow to be sent, the senior Major-General against a 
Moltke, and never dream as they sighed over their 
dead that the choice might be in part their fault. 
The truth is they think that armies win battles or 
lofce them, and do not understand that the historian 
who declares that "Alexander defeated Darius on 
the Granicus " is relating what is, in the main, a 
simple truth, which would only be obscured if he 
discoursed about the difference between the Hop- 
lites and the Immortals. 



V. — Bullet or Bayonet : 

Spenser Wilkinson in the "Coknhill." 
The British infantry went out to South Africa 
armed with two weapons of offence, the bullet and 
the bayonet. It had been taught to rely neither 
upon the one nor the other, but upon both. It had 
to face an enemy who relied entirely upon the bul- 
let, and the result was that which was expected by 
those who had considered the problem. In a £p.tv 
cases, where the British could advance up a hill- 
side, which almost invariably gives a certain 
amount of shelter to those who ascend it, the Boers 
were so astounded by the magnificent courage dis- 
played that they ran away. But after the first 
two or three battles, as they had time for reflec- 
tion, and as with their first successes their spirits 
rose, the Boers discovered that the right way to 
meet a charge was to lie still and shoot; and the 
later charges of the British have been disastrous 
failures accompanied with terrible loss. 

Why the Bayonet Fails. 
What is the truth about the bullet and the 
bayonet, and about the instruction given in peace 
to the British army on this subject? The bayonet 
has been for thirty-five years an exploded super- 
stition. Even in the days of " Brown Bess," the 
actual use of the bayonet was a rare exception. 
Wellington, who perhaps knew something about 
fighting, relied mainly upon the fire of his two- 
deep line, which usually made an end of the at- 
tempts of his opponents to charge. Napoleon also, 
by no means an incompetent judge, said: " Shoot- 



ing is the thing, everything else matters little." 
But there have been men in the British army ready 
to forget the practice of Wellington and the opinion 
of Napoleon because Souwaroff, a brilliant but cer- 
tainly eccentric personality, is reported to have 
said: " The bullet is a fool, but the bayonet is 
wise." The bullet of Souwaroff's time, though 
Napoleon and Wellington relied mainly upon it, 
was, no doubt, erratic in its ways, but under the 
influence of Whltworth it acquired wonderful 
steadiness and persistence; while Dreyse and his 
successors have enabled the modern soldier to 
discharge sixty bullets, guaranteed to go exactly 
where they are aimed anywhere within a mile, dur- 
ing the time required by Souwaroff's contempor- 
aries to send forth one solitary bullet which had 
no more than a half chance of hitting a barn door 
at the other side of a spacious farmyard. 

In 1SG4 the bullet was only at the beginning of its 
modern education. A Prussian captain, who had 
not been brought up in the school of Souwaroff, 
was with his company in the village of Lundby, 
when he heard that a company of Danes was 
marching to attack bim. He made his men lie 
down behind a bank and waited for the Danes, who 
at 700 yards from the village formed a small 
column and set out to attack. The Prussian cap- 
tain waited until the Danes were 200 yards off, and 
then let his men begin to fire. A quarter of an 
hour later the surviving Danes were retreating, 
leaving 101 dead and wounded, and twelve pris- 
oners. Three Prussians were wounded. That 
little skirmish made no great sensation in the 
newspapers at the time, but it was a decisive battle. 
It settled the question between the bayonet and 
the bullet. The moral was drawn by competent 
judges somewhat as follows: riflemen posted upon 
ground suitable for their weapon, the bullet, having 
in front either flat ground, or ground sloping 
gently away from them, cannot be approached in 
front by men on foot intending to use cold steel. 
Men who want to turn them out must either shoot 
them down or go round them. 

Why the Bullet Wins. 
The bayonet has no chance against the bullet, 
and is useful only when the bullet cannot be used 
against it. either because the bayonet man has 
come to striking distance before the bullet has had 
a chance, or because there are no bullets left. The 
first consequence of all this was to make it neces- 
sary in attacking a position to let some of your 
troops walk round it towards the flank or rear, 
while the rest occupied the attention of the de- 
fenders in their front. The reply of the defence 
was to prolong its line to the flank, or otherwise 
take precautions against being outflanked or 
turned, and the counter-move of the attack was to 



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April 15. WOO. 



A Choir of Critics on the War. 



473 



put its riflemen in a circle all round the defence, 
and thus give the defender the choice between pure 
frontal attack and surrender. The theory was 
explained by Moltke in 1865, the practical demon- 
stration by the same hand followed in 1870 at 
Sedan. 

In later years officers whose preoccupation was 
war came tc see more and more the necessity fur 
an alliance, not merely between the bullet and its 
assistant, the shrapnel shell, but between the rifle- 
man and the ground. The rifleman was taught to 
lie down so that the ground should protect him, 
to move so that it should conceal him and to 
dig heaps and holes for his protection against the 
enemy's bullets. It must be at least a dozen years 
ago that the spade was adopted as an offensive 
weapon to enable the advancing rifleman to hold 
his own against counter-attack. 

These were some of the conditions of modern 
war, long recognised in armies in which the 
officer's life is devoted to the preparation of him- 
self and his troops for war. The recent cam- 
paign seems to show that they were well under- 
stood in the Boer army, but came as a surprise 
to the Rritish forces. The British soldier has. 
indeed, during the last twenty years, been taught 
to shoot, and the army ought to have learnt from 
its own experience in the Soudan that the bravest 
and most athletic troops cannot possibly, however 
fleet and sound-winded, carry the knife or the 
spear within reach of a line of riflemen. But this 
lesson can hardly be said to have been digested. 
Last summer I spent a day watching a sham fight 
on Salisbury Plain, carried out by British troops 
under British generals. On both sides the men 
were armed with magazine rifles, but without bul- 
lets. I watched two lines of troops standing an in 
clusters at least as dense as the old two-deep line, 
facing each other at three hundred yards' distance, 
and making a terrific noise as they fired blank car- 
tridge, each line apparently aiming at the other 
line. The generals and the umpires seemed quite 
satisfied. To me that part of the spectacle seemed 
to be a sham, for it was quite clear that all con- 
cerned had completely forgotten the existence of 
the one thing that reigns supreme on the modern 
battle-field, the bullet. 



VI. — The Missing Strategy : 

Spenser Wilkinson in the "Cornhill." 

When Sir Redvers Buller reached Cape Town he 
had a difficult situation to meet. Sir George 
White's force was invested by the Boers, who were 
about to overrun Southern Natal. There was a 
ferment in the Cape Colony, and no one knew how 
soon there might be an extensive rising among the 
Cape Dutch. The small British forces in Mafeking 



and Kimberley were besieged. The business of 
strategy was out of this tangle to discover the point 
at which a sufficient effort would make it possible 
to solve all the different problems. This point 
was in Northern Natal, because the principal Boer 
army was there. Strategy said: Defeat that army 
and everything else will be easy. Time is, in war, 
of the utmost importance, and to defeat the Boer 
army it was therefore desirable to choose the 
shortest way to get at it, which was the railway 
line from Durban to Colenso. Strategy prescribes 
the concentration of effort uppn the main point, 
when that has been discovered. But instead of 
the British force, 50,000 strong, being taken to 
Colenso for a decisive attack upon the Boer army, 
it was split up into two halves, one for Colenso, 
one for the Cape Colony, with the result that one 
half was defeated at Colenso and the other half at 
Magersfontein and Stormberg. These defeats only 
made the importance of action in Natal more evi- 
dent. The two divisions there were reinforced by 
a third, which has in turn met with defeat. Yet 
all the time the adherents of the geometrical school 
have thought that the mistake lay in not advan- 
cing through the Orange Free State by a round- 
about route which offered no certainty in a reason- 
able time either of relieving Ladysmith, or of 
bringing the principal Boer army to a decisive 
battle. 

When Sir George White first reached Natal he 
found his forces wrongly divided, and propo»ed to 
concentrate them. But because he was told that 
concentration would create a temporary panic,, he 
consented to meet the enemy with his force divided. 
The weakness of this decision is veiled by the 
phrases which contrast military with political ex- 
pediency, but sound strategy knows of no such 
distinction, at least in such a case. To have con- 
centrated the forces and evacuated Dundee might 
have led to the increase of the Boer forces by a 
large contingent of Dutch colonists from Natal, 
which would no doubt have been a misfortune: 
but to leave the forces divided was to court defeat, 
and defeat was still more likely to lead the Natal 
Dutch into the Boer Camp, and certain to expose 
the whole colony to Boer invasion. That being 
the case, there was to a clear eye no choice. The 
one course was right and the other wrong. But 
the clear eye, which in matters of this kind sees 
through phrases into the heart of the situation, 
can never be obtained except by a man who by re- 
peated efforts has thought out to their very essence, 
and to their ultimate elements, all the problems of 
war, so that the principles of strategy have become 
incorporate with the fibre of his mind, and he is 
incapable of violating them. 

No army can secure, in its average general, the 
presence of the indispensable minimum dose of 



474 



The Review of Reviews, 



April 15, 1900. 



strategy, unless it has the means of passing him 
for a number of years through a strategical school, 
under the supervision of a master of the subject. 
There is in the British army no office for testing 
its generals as strategists, no guarantee whatever 
that an officer, before rising to the rank which 
may at any time place in his hands strategical de- 
cisions of national importance, shall have given 
any proofs of his competence to make such de- 
cisions. Thus it has come about that the army 
sent to South Africa was inadequately supplied, not 
merely with field guns, mounted troops, and trans- 
port, but with the strategical direction without 
which an army is as helpless as a nation without a 
government. 



VII. — The Lesson of Spion Kop : 

" Blackwood." 

The position was found to be too large for 
efficient defence, water was deficient, and it was 
terribly exposed to the enemy's artillery, to which 
our own could hardly reply; so, after holding it all 
day, and losing forty per cent, of the defenders, it 
was decided by Major Thorneycroft, who had suc- 
ceeded to the command when Genei'al Woodgate 
was wounded, to withdraw during the night, — a 
decision that was carried out before daybreak on 
the 25th. 

Was such a decision necessary? Was it neces- 
sary for our guns to fire upon our own men ? Was 
it necessary to retreat at all from the key of the 
position, which our men had won? Was it neces- 
sary to leave the momentous decision on which 
hung the fate of Ladysmith — of the campaign — on 
the shoulders of a major of mounted infantry, a 
corps in the nebulous condition that leaves the men 
uncertain whether they are fish or fowl? We 
heard that the Boers were galloping wildly about, 
their waggons were trekking, their laagers were 
breaking up: on one side of all this confusion 
were two or more divisions of British, on the other 
8,000 more, waiting, expecting to burst out 
and join them — a little more, only a 
little more, and the back of the Boer army 
was broken. Were there no generals to appeal to? 
Everyone knew General Woodgate was shot; there 
was General Buller across the river; there was 
General Warren, with his division, down below; 
there was General Clery somewhere; there was 
General Lyttelton; General Coke was on the hill; 
General Hart was about, — surely out of these one 
could have been forthcoming. Of that army of 
staff that left their college to set things right in 
South Africa, were none of them about? It is not 
in the curriculum taught at the college, though it is 
an axiom of common-sense, that the "highly-placed" 
staff-officer may, on occasion, turn " galloper," 



and tell a general that he is wanted. Did It not 
occur to one of these to overstep the line of study? 
Are there no heads left in Natal? It would seem 
so. If there are, the Boers have the monopoly. 
General Buller, in his despatch, says: — 
The fact that the force could withdraw from actual 
touch— in cases the lines were less than 1,000 yards 
apart— with the enemy in the perfect manner it did, 
is sufficient evidence of the morale of the troops; and 
that we were permitted to withdraw our cumbrous ox 
and mule transport across a river eighty-five yards 
broad, with 20-feet banks and a very swift stream, un- 
molested, is, I think, proof that the enemy has been 
taught to respect our soldiers' fighting powers. 

More than all, it shows up the defect in Boer 
tactics, which shuns the attack, as well as the 
paralysed state of the burghers; also the magni- 
ficent discipline, unaffected by the losses which they 
had just suffered, which enabled our men, as a 
defeated army, to retreat unmolested, and the mili- 
tary genius of a commander who can take such a 
momentous decision without hesitation. No bet- 
ter proof of the soundness of the principle in tactics 
that lays down the importance of the attack can be 
offered. Had the Boers the stomach to attack the 
column which was retiring across their front, a 
river before it, the retreat must have become a 
disaster. Two pontoon bridges for miles of wag- 
gons which dragged slowly ovtr the veldt under 
command of Boer positions to cross a river 85 
yards wide, the approaches steep banks 20 feet 
above the rapid stream! Fortunately for us, Boer 
tactics do not include this power. 

The Attack! 
The attack is the kernel of the military nut, be- 
cause the active is more prominent than the pas- 
sive in human nature. Men just now are accus- 
tomed to speak of armies, those collections of sol- 
diers where thousands are quoted as mere trifles, 
as mere blocks that a general can move across the 
table with a toothpick. But an army consists of 
men, mere specks, each one brimful, as you are, of 
thoughts, of hopes and fears; one speck may be 
braver than the rest, and the bravery of that 
speck will infect those nearer specks till we have 
one army braver than the other. These armies 
take the field; the specks on one side will be 
behind a ditch, a wall, defending; those on the 
other side advance to attack; there will be a fierce 
struggle, and the attacking specks will be driven 
back. As they go, one spfeck turns about — "Are 
they coming?" asks its, comrade specks — "No! 
they're afraid; let's have another try." The at- 
tack is renewed, and is beaten off again, but the 
defeated specks do not go so far back this time; 
still the defenders don't budge — " It's better behind 
the wall than in the open, let us stay where we are 
well off." Then the specks outside, who do not 
find the open quite so bad, seeing them hesitate 
try back; once more flung out, not very far this 



Review of Reviews, 
April 15, 1900. 



A Choir of Critics on the War. 



47 5 



time; and the other specks cry out, " They're 
coming on again, oh law! Those specks will 
never stop, here's off "—and they dissolve them- 
selves, and the attack walks in. 

A Sacrificed Strategy. 

So the campaign dragged on through January, 
towards the end of the month, finding itself, at 
every point, in a cul-de-sac. Sound strategy had 
been sacrificed to indifferent tactics — indifferent 
because due to underrating the intelligence of the 
Boers, and to the absence of materials adapted to 
meet their tactics. True, they have the kopje, 
and have fortified and held it on principles not 
taught at Chatham; but with reconnaissance and 
scouting, common-sense being added, our generals 
should have solved the kopje: if they cannot do so, 
let us confess ourselves beaten, and retire into 
the consciousness of our own moral superiority. 

With regard to the materials supplied, the man 
in the street, knew that the Boers were mounted, 
and should be met by mounted men; yet we sent 
out battalion after battalion of infantry — the ex- 
cuse, that there were no ships fitted for the con- 
veyance of horses, when 5,000 colonists in South 
Africa were longing to distinguish themselves on 
horseback, another 5,000 in Australia and the other 
colonies, every man of them ready to stand by his 
horse and greet the arrival of that Napoleonic 
Army Corps. The complaint about the materials 
supplied is emphasised by Lord Methuen in his 
despatch after the battle of Belmont: — 

The last height cleared, the enemy in large numbers 
galloping into the plain, the enemy's laager trekking 
across me, 3,000 yards off; my mounted troops unable 
to carry out their orders on one side — left — because 
the retreat was covered by kopjes; on the other — right 
— because too far; the artillery dead-beat and unable 
to help me. A cavalry brigade and a horse artillery 
battery from my right would have made good my suc- 
cess. Shrapnel does not kill men in these kopjes, it 
only frightens; and I intend to get at my enemy. 

Still, to act on unreliable information and im- 
perfect knowledge of the enemy's position, which 
he refers to, can only be charged against himself 
and his staff, who neglected the most ordinary 
precautions: as General Buller says in his com- 
ments, " I suppose our officers will learn the value 
of scouting in time; but in spite of all one can 
say, up to this our men seem to blunder into the 
middle of the enemy, and suffer accordingly." 

But surely he committed the same mistake on 
the Tugela, when he seemed to be ignorant that 
Boers were occupying trenches and the river's bank 
on the south. The tactical methods by which an 
almost unfordable river, when both banks are held 
by the enemy throughout its length, can be forced 
in face of a strongly entrenched position are not 
readily found in any text-book. We are casting 
about for a scapegoat on whom to lay the cause of 
our defeats, and we find it in the power of rapid 



movement which the Boers possess, and which en- 
ables them to anticipate all our movements. It 
always will do so if we adhere to obsolete and anti- 
quated drill. Our generals must move with the 
age, and try to get a bit "forrader." The lessons 
of the Peninsula must be rewritten with a quick- 
firing pen. 

VIII.— When England Wins : 

By James Baexes, in the " Outlook." 

Of course no sane man who bestows a moment's 
thought on the subject denies that it can have but 
one end — England must win, or " pop " goes the 
Empire! And the British Empire is neither a 
balloon nor a bubble, but a big idea that holds a 
mighty tight little island in close and loving touch 
with a string of free and loyal colonies marked 
out in soldier red here and there on the map of the 
world; and they will send their free and loyal sons 
to fight for the idea that is called " the Empire" 
as long as there are ships to carry them. And if 
the idea was not a good one, and its realisation not 
a success, they would not send a man! That is 
the unvarnished truth of it, and President Kruger 
and President Steyn must know it as well as Mr. 
Chamberlain; and "the idea" is — the liberty of 
the individual; freedom to speak his mind, to come 
when he pleases, go where he likes, buy his stores, 
sell his goods, sink his shafts, pay his taxes, make 
his laws, without distinction as to whether his 
name is Brown or Van Brugen, or whether his an- 
cestors sailed from the Hague or Plymouth Ho. 

Hostile Critics. 
Now, in England and America there are men who 
write and speak the English language so well that 
they have but to pick up a pen or sit down and 
talk, and everyone pays attention, no matter 
whether they agree or not; and some of these 
men have got the wrong end of this question 
and are making it harder for other men who are 
not writing or talking, but who are fighting and 
dying on either side. They are helping to pro- 
long a struggle that will have an inevitable end, 
though it fills the South African veldt with empty 
homes and the English towns and villages vith 
widowed and fatherless. Of course, those who are 
called " the hereditary enemies of Great Britain " 
(and it is not so many years ago that the United 
States was reckoned in the list) would rejoice at 
the downfall of England's power and the humbling 
of her arms; the small number of disloyal Irish are 
not counted in this category — it is but the power of 
England that saves them from their brothers. 
These wise men are constantly referring to Eng- 
land's mistakes in South Africa, to the past mis- 
judgment of her colonial governors, to the injus- 
tice of her rulings, of her policy and treatment of 



47& 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



the Afrikander Dutch. No doubt there have been 
mistakes; beyond question there has been bad 
policy. But policies have changed in the course 
of years; injustices can be forgiven and may be 
forgotten in time. It is the living present that 
we should think of. Progress and advancement 
stand for liberty nowadays. The question has 
turned the other way. England represents what 
the Dutch patriots fought for not many years ago, 
what our own ancestors struggled for and won 
under Washington — representation and equal 
rights. 

I am writing this from what should be properly 
termed the " enemy's country," although it is with- 
in the boundary of Cape Colony. I have seen the 
leniency and dispassionate ruling of the English 
military authorities, for I have attended the trials 
of men accused of high treason, rebellion against 
a Government that had always treated them fairly, 
and they have been acquitted ofttimes with evi- 
dence strong against them, set free when their real 
sentiments are known and are as plain as if they 
proclaimed them from the housetops — these men 
are colonial subjects of the Queen, but they speak 
a foreign tongue; there is extenuation for their 
sentiments. Over the border, in the Orange Free 
State, their brothers and cousins have risen to fight 
the English — or, better, their brothers and cousins 
have invaded the English territory. They have 
been born with a hatred of the English, they have 
been instructed in a contempt for the British fight- 
ing power; they suspect England's motives. They 
fight a feud, and are ready tools in the hands of 
those who wish to fan the fires of their hatred, 
ploy upon their ignorance, and use them for the 
furtherance of their ends. 

Coming Revelations. 
It is safe to say that if the Boers, or even the 
majority of the Afrikander Dutch spoke or read the 
English language, there would have been no war. 
It is safe to say that when the history of this war 
will be written, much will be disclosed that will 
startle those who read, much will be explained that 
will make plain certain strange things that have 
puzzled many. It will be the history of a great 
conspiracy, nipped in the bud. In it will be told 
how a bitter civil war was averted, how the dream 
of some fanatical Dutch sixteenth-century-thinking 
leaders failed of realisation. Then will be dis- 
played the plan to drive the English-speaking 
people out of the country " into the sea," it has 
been said. Then will be shown where went the 
vast quantity of arms and ammunition that has 
been pouring into the Transvaal for years— enough 
rifles to arm every man and woman and child that 
lives in the land Paul Kruger rules, yes, and to 
arm their cousins in the Free State and their 



cousins in the Cape Colony. The Transvaal will 
be an incident, the Uitlander grie\ances will be a 
side issue, the millionaries and the money ques- 
tion may be passed over in a few words, though- 
all contribute to the general reason - why." This 
is no war of conquest on the part of Great Britain 
against Boer farmers. There came near to being 
a war of conquest, but the shoe would have been 
upon the other foot. The " Rooineks," the hated 
English, would disappear. It was to be the wip- 
ing out of all old scores; it was to be a Dutch Afri- 
kander republic from the Cape to Delagoa Bay! 
This was the dream; this was the reason for the 
heavy taxes that the Uitlanders alone paid. This 
explained the enlistment of trained German gun- 
ners and the purchase of siege guns and long- 
range artillery; this made clear the formation of 
the Afrikander Bond, and the attitude of the Dutch 
press. 

Not many miles from here, at Barkly West and 
Douglass, and several other colonial towns, the 
flag of the Dutch Federals is flying; the English 
have been driven out; they are refugees in their 
own country. Many of them have never seen Eng- 
land; they have known little but the wide-stretch- 
ing karoo, and here they will spend their lives; 
but they speak of England as " home;" they have 
a wild, enthusiastic pride in being Englishmen; 
they are exponents of the idea, they are represen- 
tatives of the Empire; and should not their in- 
terests be of concern to the motherland? 

Sir Alfred Milner. 

I have talked with a man who knows, and who 
knew before many others would believe, how the 
situation stood here. Sir Alfred Milner, simple- 
mannered, kindly, and keen, has one of those all- 
grasping, quick-weighing perceptions, the posses- 
sion of which has made men great in deeds. He' 
saw the danger, and he forced the conspirators to 
declare themselves before their time; he met them 
when they were but half prepared. Home in Eng- 
land the Government did not appreciate the size of 
the work it had to undertake. The people, per- 
haps, did not realise it here. Both have learned. 
The fight is yet in English territory. There are- 
battles ahead, for the Boers have to be taught a 
lesson also — a lesson that must be brought home- 
to them in their turn, or it will not last. 

When, in some years to come, the English army 
of occupation shall be withdrawn, and Modder 
River shall cease to be a military depot (for such 
it is destined to be, surely), the Dutch will long 
ago have dismissed the political leaders who mis- 
led and betrayed them; they will find as much 
liberty as is good for man. I doubt not that in- 
dependence will be theirs; they will cease to hate- 
a people who are too busy to bear malice, and? 



Revikw of Kk.vikws, 
April 15, 1900. 



A Choir of Critics on the War. 



477 



who maj r knock a man down, give him a hand up, 
and forget it all. They will have to work, if they 
do not wish to be left behind. Incidentally they 
will have to pay their taxes like Englishmen; and 
such is the sturdiness and determination of the 
Boer character that, with the new spirit of progress 
aroused, South Africa will bloom and blossom like 
a garden. Just now the Boers regard victories or 
defeats as gifts or punishments from God. When 
it is over, the lasting peace that should follow they 
will regard as the greatest blessing He could be- 
stow upon a land that has seen too much blood- 
shed and unhappiness. 



IX. — Betwixt Two Battles : 

Bvr James Barnes, in the "Outlook." 

It is between two battlefields, and from my tent 
door I can look over both of them. In front, to 
the northeast, rises the grim kopje that commands 
Magersfontein. It is, as the crow flies, but six 
miles away. The Boers are there. The naval 
guns on the hill, only two or three thousand yards 
outside the camp, blaze away, and the old kopje 
smokes with the bursting clouds of lyddite fumes 
and dust, for all the world like "a blooming vol- 
cano," as a sergeant gunner said. How many of 
the enemy are there no one knows. They know 
how many we are here, for with a strong glass they 
can count almost every tent; besides, there have 
been a great many cousins, loyal subjects, who 
have stayed to keep titles to their farms, and are 
making small fortunes by selling to the soldiers 
what their relatives from over the border got 
for nothing. On the day of the battle of Modder 
River they were hiding out in the veldt, but I doubt 
if ' Jan " hid while " Piet " fought. They should 
have been cleared out long ago. It is a hard thing 
to know what is in a Dutchman's mind; you cer- 
tainly cannot tell from his lips. It is not hard to 
get news outside of a big camp — forewarned is fore- 
armed. 

At the foot of the big brown kopje yonder per- 
ished many a brave Highlander, and from the line 
of trenches that stretch away in crescent form to 
the river bends, on east and west, retired a British 
army; and over this retirement much ink has been 
spilt and much talk has been wasted. It has 
been magnified into a disaster: it was nothing of 
the kind. It was a hard slap to an army that had 
fought three successful battles, but it was one of 
the incidents of war. After a while we may learn 
why certain things were done and why cer- 
tain other things were not done. Some occur- 
rences of that day will never he repeated. I doubt 
if the Boers will have such fine shooting during the 
rest of this campaign. 



" Tommy Atkins " at Play. 

In the meantime we wait, and the men play foot- 
ball and cricket, and have just finished a week of 
sports; the bands and drums and pipes play in 
front of the tents in the evenings. Oh, these won- 
derful South African nights and gloamings, when, 
after the heat and dust of the day, the air grows 
suddenly cool, and before the western red has died 
the great sparkling stars shine out, or the moon, 
clearer and whiter than we ever see her at home, 
soars up, and then seems to hang overhead for your 
own special benefit. The heliograph signals begin 
to twinkle along the line of outposts; the Kimber- 
ley light talks against the sky; a patrol or a picket 
stamps, with a roar like musketry, across the pon- 
toon bridge; the snatch of a song comes from some- 
where back in the tents: and then the bugles blow 
and the camp goes to sleep. Perhaps a bird may 
whistle; or perhaps a sentry challenges, and one 
fears that in the stillness the countersign must 
reach the; Boer lines. As morning breaks, the 
" four-point-seven " guns speak up, and the great 
shells go tearing out towards the kopje, roaring in 
a diminuendo like trains across a trestle. And, 
like as not, a Boer gun, that must have more lives 
than a cat, spits back at us. Often, through the 
glasses, the gunner, a brave fellow in shirt-sleeves, 
can be seen. If you are up at the trenches and 
that little puff comes from the hill (which must 
he of value as an iron-mine by this time), some- 
body calls out, " Here she comes!" Thirty or 
forty seconds and she arrives, accompanied by a 
whiming, fluttering screech that ends in a spurt 
of red sand, and now and then a spattering ex- 
plosion (for the Boer shells do not always " go off," 
more's the blessing!) Then the man whose pipe 
has gone out lights another match; and for half an 
hour the game goes on. So far, we have not 
had a man killed by shell fire What has hap- 
pened on the other side it is hard to say. But 
lyddite is a fearsome thing to watch! 

During the day there is little done until the mid 
heat is past. The men bathe and wash and fish in 
the river; the officers sit and gossip about head- 
quarters; the ubiquitous correspondent wonders 
what he shall write to his paper; and we wait. 



X. — Are Our Losses Great : 

Col. F. N. Maude, in the " Contemporary. ,r 

We have never yet fought so large a campaign 
as this South African one, and we are creating an 
Imperial force, because our colonies show that 
they wish it, and we are proud to do so. We 
were bound to make mistakes in the beginning, 
especially with so scattered an army over so large 
an area, and we have made them; but were the 
Germans any better in 1S70? I think not; for ire 



4/8 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



the record of only forty-eight hours' consecutive 
operations from the 16th to 18th August at Mars- 
la-Tour and Gravelotte I find far worse defects in 
scouting, and equally bad blunders in leading, 
which had to be paid for in blood at about three 
times the cost with which we have bought our 
African experiences from October 15, 1899, up to 
date. 

Had the bulk of the nation taken that intelli- 
gent interest in the principles of land warfare 
which it now undoubtedly devotes to questions of 
sea power, none of the recorded events and casual- 
ties (which could all have been pretty accurately 
predicted by any fairly well-read staff officer) 
would haveroused anything but a passing surprise, 
and a permanent sincere regret for those needlessly 



fallen. And we should have been spared the 
hysterical comments of so large a part of our 
Press, which have done no good, but only harm, if 
only by lowering our prestige in the eyes of Europe. 
Let us harden our hearts, take our punishment like 
men and soldiers, and learn from our mistakes, 
and then our dead will have done a doubly splendid 
thing: they will have died bravely, and by their 
deaths have taught us what to avoid and what to 
remember, so that in the future we may have tra- 
ditions of war based on sound principles, and not 
a collection of fallacious theories. 

Here is a table which shows the rate of loss per 
hour in the great battles of modern history. These 
figures show that the British losses in South Africa 
are relatively light: — 



Battles. Hours. 

Mollwitz 6 

Ohotusitz 4 

Hohenfriedberg .... 5 

Kesselsdorf 2 

Roszbach 1* 

Leuthen 4 

Zorndorf 7 

Hochkirch 3 

Kunersdorf 6 

Torgau 5 

Austerlitz 4 

Jena 6 

Eylau 10 

Borodino 15 

Waterloo 8 

Koniggratz 11 

Worth 8 

Vionville 10- 

Gravelotte 9 

Sedan 12 

Plevna — 

First battle 4 

Second battle .. .. 10 

Third Battle 60 

Modder Biver 10 

Magersfontein 10 

Colenso 6 



Percentage of Loss per Hour. 



Austrians 4 

» :: :: :; :: f 

Saxons 1' 

French 10.6 

Austrians . . 



Russians 

Austrians 

Russians 

Austrians 

Austrians 

Prussians 



/ 

6.1 

5 

4.4 

5.8 

3.2 

3.3 



Russians 2.7 

2.2 

Allies . . '.'. '.'. '.'. '.'. 2' 

Austrians 1 

French 2 

0.9 

:; :: :: :: :: It 

Turks 4.5 

:: ::::::::::i 9 

British 0.7 

0.7 

■ 1 



Prussians 3.7 

:; :::: ::::!:! 

» :: :: :: :: \i 
J-f 

;; :: :: :: :. li 

French 2.6 

22 

„ 2.1 

„ 1.8 

„ 4 

Prussians 0.3 

1-5 

2.2 

1-1 

0.5 



Russians 7 

2.2 

■ -. 3 

Boers Unknown. 



Review of Reviews, 
Atril 15, 1900. 



479 



WHAT AN AUSTRALIAN SEES IN ENGLAND. 

Bt W. H. Fitchett, B.A., LL.D. 



IV— THE SECRET OF THE EMPIRE. 



The problem is to discover the secret of the 
unity of the Empire. What magic is it which robs 
so many discordant elements of their separating 
power? What weaves this strange tangle of races, 
languages and creeds, scattered over half the sur- 
face of the planet, into a compact and orderly Em- 
pire? It is the puzzle of political science how 
the eighteen States which constitute the Austrian 
Empire contrive to exist under one political sys- 
tem. It is probably a personal force, the tact, 
wisdom, and faculty for government possessed by 
the Emperor of Austria — who, without any pre- 
tensions to genius, somehow accomplishes ends 
which might seem impossible to anything but the 
highest genius — which holds the Austrian Empire 
together. And that force must soon disappear; 
and then German and Czech and Slav, Magyar and 
Pole and Serb, will fly apart as the grains in a pow- 
der cask do at the touch of a match! But the 
British Empire is infinitely more complex than the 
Empire of Austria, if its geography and ethnology 
are taken into account. And yet, somehow, it is 
a unit; a single political organism, with a hundred 
political systems dwelling side by side in pea^e. 
under a single flag! What is the secret of this 
cohesion which confounds all precedents, and seems 
to run in the teeth, not only of history and of 
geography, but of human nature itself? 

Imperfect Forces. 

A cluster of great words is usually accepted as 
explaining this puzzle. It is a community of 
blood and speech, of literature and history, which 
holds the nation together. But the far-scattered 
provinces over which the Queen reigns are cer- 
tainly not knitted together by any crimson thread 
of kinship. No common speech exists, and no 
common literature or history. 

Race and language and history do, of course, 
count; a common literature probably counts for 
more than even these. Carlyle, in a well-known 
passage/" declares that Shakespeare is worth more 
to the English-speaking race than India; he meant 
in intellectual coin. But Shakespeare is also one 
of the unifying forces of the Empire. As some- 
one has said, " we are all the subjects of King 
Shakespeare " ! Our great writers — Scott and 



Dickens, Thackeray and Macaulay, Tennyson and 
Browning — colour the general imagination of their 
readers under every sky to a common tint; they 
thrill them with common emotions, and put them 
into subjection to common ideals. So the whole 
Empire is knitted together with subtle threads, 
woven of the intellect and the imagination, threads 
whose strength no wise statesman will despise. 
Race and language and history and literature, we 
repeat, count. They are elements in the cement 
which holds the Empire together. 

But for how much do they count? The tie of 
common blood does not count for much; else the 
United States would never have cut, with a blood- 
stained sword, the bond which held them to the 
mcther-land. What human quarrels are more 
bitter and angry than those amongst kinsfolk! 
Moreover, the Ghoorkas, who are amongst the 
bravest and most loyal of the Queen's soldiers, do 
not find the root of their loyalty in community of 
blood with us; and the Canadians, whose heroic 
rush on Cronje's trenches at Paardeberg drove 
the Boer general to surrender, were French- 
men both by blood and speech. Pride in a com- 
mon history may hold, with a certain en- 
ergy, a scattered people together. But for 
the innumerable races under the sceptre 
of Queen Victoria there practically is no com- 
mon history! History, moreover, divorces as well 
as unites. It is well that Lord Roberts' gallant Can- 
adians forgot the Plains of Abraham! 

The human memory has, it is true, 
a gracious magic of its own, and most 
of us, happily, forget the controversies 
of history, and remember only its glories. So 
the shadows of Pitt and Nelson and Wellington, 
the far-off glories of Trafalgar and Waterloo, knit 
us to each other by bonds of sympathy. Yet, in the 
clash of contemporary politics, the slender threads 
of pride in a common history are soon snapped. 
The memories of Agincourt and Crecy, 
of Magna Charta and the Invincible Ar- 
mada, did not prevent an English-speaking 
people on one side of the Atlantic from fighting 
furiously with an English-speaking people on the 
other side of the Atlantic; any more than did the 
genius of Shakespeare or the music of Milton. 
Southerner and Northerner in the United States 



480 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



were knit together by all the ties of blood and 
speech and literature and history; yet that did 
not prevent them waging the most bloody civil 
war the world has known. 

Cash and Religion. 

It is sometimes said it is a cash nexus which 
holds the British Empire together. At bottom 
Englishmen are " practical," not to say selfish. 
The most sensitive spot in the average Englishman 
is his pocket. And so, it is argued, the provinces are 
loyal to the motherland, and the motherland is 
anxiously considerate of her colonies, merely be- 
cause the connection pays both parties. Trade 
follows the flag. That is why, according to the 
cynic, we are all so jealous for the flag! Are not 
our white-sailed merchant ships, our smoky-fun- 
nelled steamers, the flying shuttles that weave the 
weu of Empire? In the last analysis, loyalty is 
but another name for a good investment. 

This is the philosophy of a cynic — and of a cynic, 
it may be added, who must be singularly ignorant, 
both of history and of human nature. In the pre- 
sence of all the greater human passions and emo- 
tions, purely material interests count for little. The 
colonies, at the present moment, are pouring out 
their gold, as well as the blood of their children, 
like water, to sustain the Queen's flag in Africa; 
and they are certainly not doing this merely as a 
good trade investment. England has spent — or 
is spending — some £60,000,000 in the struggle 
against the Boers; and when she has triumphed 
she will not take a coin from a Dutchman's pocket 
nor an acre from a Dutchman's farm. As 
Southerner and Northener plunged into that most 
tragic of civil wars, it was with the knowledge that 
the conflict must ruin the chief industries of both 
sides. Men, after all — and even in the dusty realm 
of politics — are swayed much more by their con- 
victions and their passions than by their pockets; 
as history — in spite of the cynics — abundantly 
shows. 

Religion, under certain conditions, may be a 
great unifying force; but it certainly is not the 
bond of a common creed which holds the Queen's 
realm together. There is no need to quote once more 
Voltaire's oft-quoted epigram about the English 
having " forty religions and only one sauce." We 
must forget all history if we fail to see that dif- 
ferences of religion — or what is mis-called " reli- 
gion " — are amongst the great disruptive forces of 
society. And the British Empire, taking in all its 
provinces and subjects, is the strangest patchwork 
of creeds ever held together under one sceptre. 

Pace and speech and literature and history and 
material interests do, we repeat, contribute some- 
thing to the unity of the British Empire. But 
they do not explain it. In some senses they even 



tend to imperil it. Taken at their best, they act 
only partially, and affect only sections of the Em- 
pire. They affect most powerfully, it is true, the 
most inluential section of the Queen's subjects — 
the strong-brained, restless, hard-fighting Anglo- 
Saxon, with his faculty for ruling. But the Queen's 
Empire does not consist solely of even the strenu- 
ous Anglo-Saxon! Perhaps — to make the state- 
ment of the case just — it might be added that what 
influences the Anglo-Saxon — what colours his im- 
agination and controls his conscience — decides the 
policy and the history of the Empire. And the 
forces we have been discussing — community of 
race, speech, literature, history, and religion — su- 
premely affect the Anglo-Saxon, and, through him, 
reach and sway the whole Empire. 

But there remain two great forces — one personal 
and one political — which do reach every province 
of the Empire, and profoundly influence every sec- 
tion ot its subjects, and are to be counted as 
amongst the greatest of the forces which hold the 
Empire together. These are the personal influence 
and character of the Queen, and the wise and mag- 
nanimous policy on which the colonial empire of 
Great Britain is administered. To these have to 
be added a third force — as the present writer, at 
least, profoundly believes — which is moral rather 
than political; which is found, not in any conscious 
human policy, but in a divine purpose — a divine 
vocation, impressed on the English-speaking race 
by that Supreme Will which shapes all human his- 
tory to the pattern of its own counsels. 

The Queen ! 

Who can measure the value of the Queen, as a 
personal and political force, to the Empire! The 
general political conscience grows sensitive; and 
the personal character of the monarch is, for good 
or evil, a factor of supreme importance. The 
monarchy would not survive another George IV., 
with his cesspit-flavoured morals. Another 
George III., with his narrow brain and obstinate 
will, would drive the Empire into fragments. But 
the Queen has brought to the task of royalty a 
woman's unfaltering tact, a statesman's cool- 
brained wisdom, a soldier's steadfast courage, a 
martyr's loyalty to duty. In a sense she is more 
to England than Washington was to America. 
Something both of the hata and the love, the exag- 
gerations and the obscurities, of party passion 
gathers round Washington. But the Queen sits in 
a serene air where no dust of " party " blows! Alt 
classes love her; all parties trust her. She is the 
representative and servant of those great political 
principles which are behind and above all political 
parties. What the Queen is to her realms we shall 
never Quite realise until that sad day comes — may 
it be far distant! — when she is laid beside her 



Review of Reviews, 
April 15, 1900. 



What an Australian Sees in England. 



481 



long-mourned husband in the stately mausoleum at 

Frogmore. 

This magic of loyalty to the Queen penetrates 

through all barriers of race and creed. It is felt 

everywhere and by everybody under the British 

flag. It is at least as strong in the colonies as, 

say, in Kent or in Argyleshire. It sometimes 

takes odd forms. Says Mr. Alleyne Ireland, in the 

" Outlook ": — 

It is impossible for anyone who has not lived in 
the British colonies to realise what a mighty force this 
loyalty is. I have seen a man almost torn to pieces 
for refusing to drink the Queen's health at a banquet 
in Melbourne; I have seen a drunken French sailor in 
8t; Lucia-soundly'thrashed by a negro porter for spitting 
on a picture of the Queen in an illustrated paper. 
There exists throughout the British colonies that senti- 
ment which in these days is driving London wild over 
the abominable and vile attacks made on the Queen 
by the French " yellow press." It is in neglecting to 
count in this element of personal devotion to the 
sovereign throughout the colonies that Continental 
Europe falls into an absurd error when it congratulates 
itself on the smallness of the British army. 

It is idle to attempt an analysis of that sentiment 
of loyalty to the Queen which is one of the steady- 
ing forces of the British Empire. Her sex, her 
sorrows, her household pieties; her genius for say- 
ing the right word and doing the right thing; her 
wizardlike insight into the feelings of her people; 
her obstinate truthfulness; her great fidelity to 
duty — these are the qualities which take captive 
the imagination and the heart of her people. Of 
the influence — with a strangeness as of magic about 
it — which the Queen has over her subjects, Ireland 
supplies the latest example. A woman's insight 
sometimes sees more clearly than even a states- 
man's instructed vision. The Queen has felt, like 
all her subjects, an impulse of admiration for the 
splendid valour shown by her Irish soldiers in the 
fighting on the steep hill summits in front of 
Ladysmith. How does she honour it? She writes a 
generous phra?e; she gives the shamrock a recog- 
nised place amongst the emblems of honour the 
Empire recognises; she will add an Irish battalion 
to her Guards; she will visit Ireland herself! 
There is nothing of the calculating sagacity of a 
statesman in all this, only a woman's quick and 
generous impulse; but the "woman" is the Queen, 
the most honoured and venerated figure, perhaps, 
alive to-day! And the Queen, in this matter, is 
wiser than all the politicians. With a word of 
queenly praise, a gesture of queenly sympathy, 
she has done more to take the bitterness out of 
Irish discontent than a dozen Acts of Parliament 
could do. 

Generosity as a Policy. 

But "personal" influence is, after all, a temporary 
force. Death, if it does not slay it, seems to lift it 
into some far-off realm remote from contemporary 
politics. The memory of Washington did not keep 



North and South, in America, from flying at each 
other's throats. What chiefly makes the British Em- 
pire to-day possible, and what, as long as it endures, 
will hold the Empire together, is the new temper 
of England towards her colonies, and the wise and 
magnanimous policy on which her colonial Empire 
is administered. The Continental nations, say? 
Mr. Barnes, "do not know that this great Empire 
has developed a colonial government under which 
people live as free as in the most visionary republic 
that men's minds have formed; that laws are now 
the same for all men, black or white, brown or 
yellow, and they may speak any language under 
the sun, and walk as kings." But the colonies 
themselves know all this, and it is the secret of 
colonial loyalty. French or German colonies must 
be spoon-fed and gendarme-ridden. But the 
sturdy, strong-fibred Briton is left in every colony 
under the British flag to manage his own affairs, 
to make his own laws, and devise his own taxes. 
The motherland asks nothing from him but what 
he chooses, out of pure affection and loyalty, to 
give. And. as a result, he is willing to give every- 
thing — to the last coin in his pocket, and the last 
drop of blood in his veins — for the common flag. 
Nowhere in all political history can be found such 
another example of generosity as that which Eng- 
land shows to-day towards her colonies. She makes 
herself responsible for their safety, and would fight 
in defence of Melbourne, or Sydney, or Auckland, 
as she would for London, or Edinburgh, or Dublin. 
The burden of the armies and fleets of the Empire is 
borne practically alone by the inhabitants of the 
three kingdoms; but the shelter of the army and 
fleet stretches over the whole area of the Empire. 
And while thus bearing the cost of their defence. 
England asks no advantage in the ports 
of her colonies over other nations. Her 
children tax her goods at will. Nay, even 
a province like India, won and held by the sword. 
is allowed to tax the goods of her conqueror! As 
a result, the British colonies have the safety and 
pride of citizenship in a great Empire without its 
cost. They enjoy all the freedom of independence 
without the risks and the burdens of independence. 

The Colonies under the Flag. 

The Australian knows this is his own happy ex- 
perience; but as he sails round the world and 
touches colony after colony, he finds the same rule 
to obtain. The self-governing colonies under th-? 
British flag are communities enjoying the happiest 
political conditions human history has ever re- 
corded. In the British colonial system of to-day 
what may be called household affections are erected 
into a policy. The impulse of a father towards his 
children is an impulse to give to them, not to gei 
from them; and this is the spirit of English col- 



482 



The Review of Reviews, 



April 15, 1900. 



onial policy. England would not fire a single car- 
tridge, for the sake of keeping a colony that seri- 
ously wished to set up in business for itself. 

The noblest ideals, when translated by 
clumsy human hands into the concrete, are ape 
to be marred. But, with all its fail- 
ures and imperfections, the British Empire cf 
to-day is built on noble ideals: on justice, on free- 
dom; on reverence for law; on hate of oppression; 
on the care of the strong for the weak; on the 
desire to lift up civilisation to new levels, and to 
increase the sum total of human happiness. The 
way to realise this is to imagine that the British 
Empire, with all the ideals it represents, were sud- 
denly blotted out of the modern world! Can anyone 
doubt that this would be, for human freedom 
and happiness, a tragedy? It would be to put back 
the hands on the clock of Christian civilisation by 
whole centuries. 

A Divine Ideal. 

.As the Australian wanders across the provinces 
and cities of this great Empire; as there rises to his 
imagination the vision of what the Empire means, 
and of the part it plays in history, the sense 
deepens of a divine vocation. It is the worst sort 
of atheism to believe that God has no plans for 
His world; that nations and kingdoms are acci- 
dents without meaning, vagrant sandgrains blown 
hither and thither by winds of chance. God has 
His ideals, towards which He is educating the race; 
and He works by human instruments. He calls, 
now this nation and now that, to some great ser- 
vice. The Jew was chosen to be the religious 
teacher of mankind. The Greek was God's instru- 
ment in the intellectual development of the race. 
The Roman had a divine vocation to stamp on 
human society reverence for law and for political 



order. And we do not understand how any 
student of the growth of the British Empire can 
fail te discern behind it the energy of a divine pur- 
pose. 

Kingdoms and provinces come to us with- 
out our seeking. British statesmen watch the ex- 
pansion of the Empire much as a peasant on the 
seashore might watch the flowing of a sea-tide, 
and with as little comprehension of the forces be- 
hind the tide. In one of his latest speeches, Mr. Bal- 
four said : "I myself am not one of those who watch 
Imperial expansion wholly without misgiving, or 
wholly without a sense of anxiety. I think it is 
necessary, but that it ought not to be undertaken 
with a light heart." This exactly expresses the 
sentiment with which the wisest British statesmen 
watch the growth of the Empire. They are look- 
ing on the operation of forces they have not 
created, and which half frighten them by their 
energy. 

No human force explains the tide. The energies 
behind it run to the rim of the physical universe. 
And something more goes to the making of the 
British Empire than the wisdom of its statesmen, 
the energy of its merchants, the valour of its sol- 
diers and sailors. The present writer, at least, 
believes profoundly that the British Empire ia 
built of God. It is an instrument in His hands for 
great services to the race. It is the deliverer of 
the slave. It is the foe of injustice and oppres- 
sion. It is the trustee and schoolmaster of the 
coloured races. It is the representative and ser- 
vant of civilised order in all the waste places of 
the earth. It is the great missionary nation. It 
multiplies and spreads the Bible as no other na- 
tion does. So long as it serves these great offices 
it will stand. When it ceases to serve them it 
will perish, and will deserve to perish. 

\ 



Review of Reviews, 
April 15, 1900. 



483 



SHALL WESTERN AUSTRALIA BE BROKEN UP? 

Bt the Hon. J. W. Hackeit. M.L.C. 



I have been asked by the Australian Editor of 
the " Review of Reviews " to make some remarks 
upon the movement to divide Western Australia 
into two colonies. I understand that my remarks 
are principally to have reference to the paper con- 
tributed by my friend, Mr. Kirwan, to this " Re- 
view " last January, and headed, " Altering the 
Map of Australia." This paper is practically a 
condensed statement of the case presented by the 
Reform League in their recent Separation Mani- 
festo. 

Who are the Uitlanders ? 

Of the earnestness of some of the promoters of 
separation there can be no question; nor again, 
curiously, of the indifference shown by so many 
of their brother Uitlanders on the coast and in 
the agricultural districts. It may be well to bear in 
mind, if a radical error is not to be committed, 




THE HON. J. W. HACKETT, M.L.C. 



that when the goldflelds' separatists claim the 
movement to be one by the Uitlanders, that is, 
the inhabitants of the goldflelds, against the old 
West Australians — including in the latter the en- 
tire population lying between the goldflelds and the 
Indian Ocean — this point of view has to be funda- 
mentally revised. The proportion of Uitlanders — 
1 continue to use the phrase because of its conveni- 
ence — is almost as great in the agricultural and 
coastal urban districts — in the latter no doubt quite 
as great — as it is on the Eastern goldflelds. In 
Perth and Fremantle, since the grant of respon- 
sible government in 1890, the growth of the popu- 
lation has been five-fold or more, and has almost 
entirely come from the colonies of the East. A 
similar change has taken place, though not quite 
in the same degree, in most of the agricultural dis- 
tricts, and even in the older country towns, such 
as Bunbury, Northam, Geraldton, and Albany. This 
fact clearly changes the complexion of the agita- 
tion. It is not one between the old West Austra- 
lians and the newcomers from the East, but be- 
tween the newcomers resident on or near the coast 
and the newcomers resident in the Eastern gold- 
flelds, districts, though it is undoubted that any in- 
fluence which the small remnant of the old set- 
tlers which is left may exercise is exerted among 
the people near the coast. This phase of the 
matter must not be lost sight of. 

One other initial correction has to be made: 
The deeply regrettable hostility displayed 
by the Eastern goldflelds towards other 
portions of the colony is not a birth 
of yesterday, or due to recent legislation by the 
local Parliament, or to the administration of the 
Government, or even to the miscarriage of the 
proposal to send the Commonwealth Bill to the 
referendum, but has existed in its present strenu- 
ousness from the day when the first arrivals laid 
the foundation of Coolgardie. The language of 
the fields is at the present moment no more harsh, 
nor more angry, and, possibly, no more justified 
in these days, than it was at the time I speak of, 
some seven years back. At that early date the 
hostility was so bitter, so full of contempt and 
passion, that it would afford an interesting study 
to the political student. Surely this hostility was- 



4 8 4 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



not deserved. Face to face with difficulties 
of an almost unexampled character, the Govern- 
ment of the colony, unfamiliar as it was with large 
operations, with the scantiest means at its disposal, 
and a hopelessly insufficient staff, struggled 
to provide the newly-discovered goldfields with the 
elements of order, communication, education, and 
medical service; and performed this task 
with a vigour and resolution which have 
even now obtained some recognition, and will, 
I believe, stand out prominently when the history 
of the events of the last decade of the nineteenth 
century comes to be written, the decade which 
covers this colony's contribution to the history of 
modern Australia. 

These two points are worth bearing in mind: 
The facts that the coast is as much the territory 
of the new arrivals as are the goldfields, and that 
the feeling of the present moment is a prolongation 
of that which sprang into existence on the first 
settlement of the fields. 

The Case for Separation. 

1 am now asked to show cause against "altering 
the map of Australia," as a result of the present 
agitation. It may be admitted that the day must 
come when this huge, unwieldy province of West- 
ern Australia, which contains as much territory as 
a third of Europe, must be divided into two or 
more provinces, but that day seems hardly to have 
come yet. It may be predicted that the Common- 
wealth will hesitate many times before it ac- 
cepts, with its full burden of debts and responsibili- 
ties, past, present, and to come, the creation of a 
State which will be founded on a single industry, 
and that the precarious one of gold mining; which 
will be ruled by the employes of that one industry; 
which is likely to resemble, most of all, a huge 
trades' union, and to organise which it will have 
to find at the start a capital of some six millions, 
to meet its obligations to the older State and to 
defray the cost of pressing public works. For 
this State, having been called into existence by the 
Federal Government, must be seen successfully 
through all its difficulties. 

When I say that the new State will be a gold- 
field and nothing more, I state a literal fact. Of 
pastoral and agricultural resources it has prac- 
tically none. There are probably not half-a-dozen 
stations in the area marked out for the new colony, 
and, so far as I know, not a single holding that 
can be called a farm. The arid interior is fatal 
to all occupations save that of mining; whilst at 
Esperance the singular phenomenon is to be seen 
of a rainfall dropping from 25 inches at that port 
to something like a third of that amount a score 
•Of miles inland. 



The physical is supplemented by the legal diffi- 
culty. It is true that when we were given our 
Constitution by the Imperial Parliament in 1890, 
provision was made for dividing the colony by 
Order in Council, to meet the views of those who 
believed that a door should be kept open to admit 
the millions of over-populated England into the 
wide areas of a colony supposed to be one of bound- 
less resources. It is admitted now that an Im- 
perial Act will be required to give effect to such 
a division, if it were only to overcome the 
provisions cf the Colonial Boundaries Act of 1895, 
which forbids the dividing of Western Australia 
without the consent of its own Parliament. But 
such an Act would also be required to provide a 
Constitution for the new State, to convey the con- 
trol of many public interests at present vested 
in the authorities of the old colony, and to adjust 
the financial relations between the two. Pro- 
bably ont> reason why the rest of the colony has 
remained so quiet in the face of the movement on 
the goldfields is the conviction that the matter 
would have to be investigated by a Select Com- 
mittee of one of the Houses of the Imperial Par- 
liament, and the contents of the Manifesto of the 
Reform League analysed. In that case they be- 
lieve that the exposure of the case of the Separa- 
tists would be so complete that nothing more 
would be heard of it. 

Let us now examine this case, and see how far 
it justifies the rending of Western Australia in 
two. It is not quite easy to feel assured as to 
what may be considered the salient points in this 
agitation. By watching the columns of this "Re- 
view," I fancy I observe that the points which 
seem to be most striking refer to what the Mani- 
festo sets down as " inadequate Parliamentary re- 
presentation," and, next, " unscrupulous treatment 
in the matter of finance." 

The Franchise Grievance. 

To speak first of the second, the complaint seems 
to be in your words: •' They are granted the fran- 
chise, but are denied adequate representation in 
Parliament. They are half the population of the 
colony, yet they have only three out of twenty- 
four members in the Council, and six out of forty- 
four representatives in the Assembly. There are 
three of the older constituencies who, on an elec- 
torate of less than one hundred, return one member 
each to the Assembly, while 5,674 electors of East 
Coolgardie have only one representative." 

Now, in the first place, it is more than doubtful 
if the goldfields contain half the population of 
the colony. Indeed, it is as certain as anything 
can be that they do not. At present, questions of 
population are more or less guesswork, for it is 
nine years since the last census was taken, and her 



Review of Reviews, 
April 15, 1900. 



Shall Western Australia Be Broken Up ? 



4«5 



population has mainly come to Westralia within 
that time. The census of 1901 may have sur- 
prises in store for us, but it will hardly show half 
the population to be resident on the Eastern gold- 
fields. It is much more likely that it will show 
one-third. But what we have reason to take ex- 
-ception to in the above quotation is that you do 
not proceed to say that you are giving the figures 
of a state of things which has passed away. The 
two new Reform Bills which are awaiting the as- 
sent of the Queen may alter almost every phrase 
of the sentences 1 have quoted. A new province 
has been formed for the goldfields which will give 
them three members additional to the three they 
already possess in the Council. By the new Con- 
stitution Act, again, three of the smaller constituen- 
cies have been disfranchised, and the other smaller 
constituencies have been, for the most part, enlarged. 
The 5,G74 electors at East Coolgardie are to have 
three members by the new Bill. Mr. Kirwan bal- 
ances this by saying that a new " pocket borough " 
has been constituted for Collie. Whether this 
purely mining constituency, composed of three 
mineral fields, be a pocket borough or not, he must 
settle with Mr. Vosper, the most politically ad- 
vanced member of the fields, who was responsible 
for the creation of this undoubtedly democratic 
constituency. By the new Bill four new members in 
the Assembly have been allotted to the Eastern gold- 
fields. In justice, we should not stop here, so far 
as the new population is concerned. The metro- 
politan district is almost wholly composed of Uit- 
landers. This also has received an additional pro- 
vince, with three more members in the Council, 
while four new constituencies have been formed in 
the metropolitan area. 

The History of the W.A. Franchise. 

Nevertheless, it is complained, and has to be ad- 
mitted, that the representation of the goldfields, 
as compared with the far North, shows a dis- 
parity that may be called unfair. An explana- 
tion of this disparity requires a few words of his- 
tory. 

When responsible government was granted in 
1890 to the small community in Western Aus- 
tralia, every little centre of population was given 
a representative. The distribution of seats then 
made was not generally considered unequal. Tu 
1893 came the discovery of gold in Coolgardie, re- 
sulting shortly afterwards in an inrush of popula- 
tion from the East, which was then suffering from 
an extreme depression. In that year a new Con- 
stitution Act was introduced, giving its first mem- 
ber to the Eastern goldfields. 

In two or three years' time the richness of the 
fields was proved beyond dispute, and the in- 
crease of population demanded an amendment of 



the Constitution Act. The tenure of Parliament 
was cut short by a year to allow of this Bill being 
introduced, the Eastern goldfields were formed into 
a province of their own, with three members, and 
sir members were allotted to the fields in the 
Assembly. I may add that, at this time, I strongly 
advocated granting a second member to the dis- 
trict of Coolgardie, but received no support, either 
from the municipality, press, or people of that 
town. This Act was passed in the middle of 
1896. Three years later another Constitution 
Act was passed, which is now awaiting Her Ma- 
jesty's approval. To all appearances most persons 
in the East are quite unaware of the existence of 
this Bill. By it another province has been created 
for the goldfields, with a representation of three 
members in the Upper House, whilst in the Assem- 
bly four new members have been added to the 
goldfields, giving them a representation, in all, of 
ten members. 

There remains to be considered the position of 
the North, a distinct anomaly; and it is now many 
years since I took upon myself to point out the 
discrepancy which existed between these small 
constituencies and the very large electorates of the 
metropolitan district — the goldfields at the time 
were hardly existent. In the new Bill, the Gov- 
ernment proposed to disfranchise four of the 
smaller seats, but one of these, East Kimberley, 
was retained by the Assembly. The problem be- 
fore the Government was, what to do with a num- 
ber of electorates which had enjoyed separate re- 
presentation for many years. To disfranchise 
them at a blow would have been contrary to the 
practice of our Constitution, unjust to these elec- 
torates, and injurious to the balance of an estab- 
lished system. They decided to proceed gradu- 
ally. What is aimed at is reform, not revolu- 
tion. In another three years, or even less, we may 
expect to see several more of these smaller seats 
erased, and the power they wield transferred to 
more populous centres, when the work of our Con- 
stitution should be completed. But at present 
the Uitlander can control the whole of the East- 
ern goldfields' seats, ten in number, and the whole 
of the twelve metropolitan seats, as well as the 
Northern mining electorates. The course of de- 
velopment and liberalisation was menaced by the 
retention of East Kimberley, a step against which 
I protested. Yet the arguments used by those 
who favoured it were not without strength. Kim- 
berley is a province of over 100,000 square miles — 
larger than Victoria — and contains resources which 
will probably render it one of the most valuable 
additions to the Commonwealth. It is practically 
divided into two districts, independent of each 
other — East and West. It may be mentioned that 
the Northern Territory of South Australia, pos- 



4 86 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 190a 



sessing, according to some reports, inferior re- 
sources to those of Kimberley, is represented by two 
members in the South Australian House of As- 
sembly. 

The progressive character of the new Reform 
Acts does not stop here. The period of Parlia- 
ment is cut down from four years to three, the 
residential qualification is shortened, immensely im- 
proved facilities are given for the transfer of 
votes, while the justice of giving the franchise to 
women is for the first time acknowledged in West- 
ern Australia. This last act of right is, with a 
curious application of the " Wolf and the Lamb " 
fable, claimed to have been intended as a blow to 
the fields, on the ground that the women are more 
numerous in the older districts. If it be the case 
that the miners of the goldfields do not bring their 
wives and families to live with them, it is surely 
no reason that, because they declare themselves a 
migratory, and to that extent a homeless, popula- 
tion, the woman's vote should on that account be 
denied to the rest of the colony. It is, however, 
one of the most satisfactory of recent develop- 
ments that the influx of women to the goldfields 
not only promises a settled and more contented 
population, but bids fair to equalise the women 
voters in all parts of Western Australia. It is 
perfectly safe to say that, in the first place, the 
electoral legislation of Western Australia is based 
on the most advanced models of the Eastern colo- 
nies, in some respects going beyend them; and. 
secondly, that at the rate in which the principle 
of electoral equality is working, we shall see the 
rule of one adult one value given practical effect 
at the next distribution of seats, which may come 
at any time after the census of next year has given 
us a reliable basis to work upon. 

Financial Wrongs. 
We now come to what the League calls the "un- 
scrupulous treatment " received in the matter of 
finances. The position of the Reform League I 
understand to be as follows: — For the four years 
1895-99 the consolidated revenue of the colony has 
been £9,935,004. In that time, apart from loan 
expenditure, there was spent in all, £10,459,585. 
Besides, there was a loan expenditure of £6,180,464. 
making, during the four years, a total outlay of 
£16,640.049. Deducting that spent on railway ad- 
ministration, and posts and telegraphs, the total 
amount spent in "Western Australia for the four 
years amounted to £13,180,996. On the strength of 
a return presented to the Legislative Council, the 
League claims that the total expenditure for the 
four years on the Eastern fields, including public 
works, has been only £1,615,332. All these figures 
pccm to have been accepted by the "Review " as 
Incapable of contradiction. Further, the Mani- 



festo states that the Eastern goldfields have con- 
tributed to the consolidated revenue over two mil- 
lions, exclusive of railway receipts or profits, so 
that, in their own words: " To put it briefly, the- 
Government has derived half a million more re- 
venue from the goldfields during the last four years 
than it has spent on them out of the consolidated 
revenue and loan funds put together. In other 
words, during the last four years the Government 
has spent on the coastal or older districts, in ad- 
dition to their own proper revenue, the entire loan 
expenditure, and half a million of the revenue de- 
rived from the goldfields." 

The Real Facts. 

This is one of the statements which is read in 
the colony, smiled at, and forgotten. The matter, 
however, was submitted to the Government Ac- 
tuary, a gentleman of much actuarial ability and- 
unimpeachable honesty. After a full investiga- 
tion, Mr. Owen points out the inaccuracy of setting 
down the net amount spent on the area which is to con- 
stitute the new colony as £1,615,332. The dis- 
tinction he is careful to draw is between the gold- 
fields and the territory of which it is intended the 
new State shall consist. 

He dwells on the fact that the return asked for 
dealt with the past four years' expenditure alone. 
But grants were voted, and works carried out prior 
to that period within the area of the proposed new 
colony. Nor is the share of the latter in the cost 
of the general administration included in the re- 
turn, nor did the League include interest on loan 
moneys. 

The conclusion the Government Actuary arrives 

at is a very different one from that set down on 

the Manifesto. The expenditure out of revenue he 

sets down as follows for the proposed colony: — 

General expenditure chargeable £2,113,890 

Goldfields expenditure chargeable 223,121 

Interest on loan expenditure chargeable . . 105,183- 
Special votes and grants chargeable . . . . 523,253 



Expenditure out of revenue chargeable . . . . £2,965,447 
In addition to these, out of loan moneys have 
been spent £1,761,331, making the total expendi- 
ture chargeable £4,726,778. The revenue credited 
to the area he shows to be £3,311,043, leaving an 
excess of expenditure over revenue of £1,415,735. 
So that instead of, as the Manifesto states, "half a 
million more revenue being derived from the gold- 
fields than was spent on them out of consolidated 
revenue and loan funds put together," according 
to the Government Actuary about a million and a 
half has been spent on the delineated area over 
and above the revenue received. 

But this is not all. In. addition to what has been 
already expended, the colony has accepted further 
heavy liabilities on account of the new colony. The 



Review of Reviews, 
April 15, 1900. 



Shall Western Australia Be Broken Up? 



487 



Coolgardie water scheme, the Leonora railway, and 
the Boulder railway duplication are responsible for 
future borrowings amounting to £2,650,000, an 
obligation which has to be added to the sums 
already paid. If the Government Actuary's figures 
be correct, it will be seen that the charge just 
dealt with is one of the most hollow that could 
be made. 

Is Taxation Fair ? 

Akin to the question of revenue and expenditure 
ie that of taxation. The Manifesto states that 
" the guiding principle seems to be to get as much 
out of the fields as possible by taxing our food, 
•lothing, and other necessities, and generally all 
commodities in the interests of farming products 
and local coastal manufactures. The stock tax is 
a notable example." It adds, " To penalise the 
goldfields still further, the Government has im- 
posed a dividend tax." This tax, it may be men- 
tioned, is the only form of property tax we possess 
outside the death duties. It is practically a copy 
©f the Queensland measure, and was preferred by 
the West Australian Government to other forms 
cf taxation on property, such as an income tax or 
a land tax; first, because the two latter seem likely 
to yield such meagre results; secondly, because 
it seemed easiest of collection, yielding the best 
results with a minimum of friction and injury to 
the producers' interests; thirdly, because it was 
claimed to have worked well in Queensland; and, 
lastly, because it was practically a tax upon pro- 
fits. It is hardly necessary to say that it does not 
apply to the goldfields only, but to dividends paid 
by all joint stock businesses whatever in Western 
Australia. 

" We then come," says the Manifesto, " to that 
most iniquitous form of taxation — differential rail- 
way rates." Considering that this principle is in 
force all over Australia the indictment is a some- 
what sweeping one. Seven instances are given in 
the Manifesto in which the freight on local articles 
is lower than that of the imported — timber, 
coal, jam, tomato sauce, vinegar, wine, and agricul- 
tural produce. The importance of jam, tomato 
sauce, and vinegar may be safely neglected. As 
to the rest of the list, agricultural produce is stated 
to pay to Kalgoorlie £1 Ss. 9d. if imported; if local, 
15s. 6d. As a fact, the rates for agricultural pro- 
duce are precisely the same for imported as far the 
local article. In regard to coal, our Government 
follows the example of the Victorian Government 
In encouraging the granting of a lower rate of car- 
riage for the local article. The rates on jarrah 
and Oregon are largely determined by the fact that 
the former is an exceedingly heavy timber, and 
that Oregon is lighter and more bulky. None of 
the rates complained of have been the work of 



very recent years, whilst some have been in exis- 
tence for very many years past. 

But there is a stronger answer to this attack 
upon differential rates. It appears that the rates, 
on the whole, if not the lowest in Australia, ar« 
amongst the lowest. What the Railway Depart- 
ment has done, under pressure from Parliament 
and the public, is to reduce the rates to the lowest 
point which is consistent with making the railways 
pay their way. Of these low rates, the goldfields 
get the full value. But to encourage local indus- 
try, a few of these low freight articles are still 
further reduced. What, then, have the fields to 
complain of? Not only do they get practically the 
lowest rates in Australia for all other articles, but 
they get still lower rates on certain articles of local 
production. Surely, in any case, lowering the 
rates means the gain of the consumer. 

An explanation of the complaint of the Mani- 
festo that " The Government imposes a progressive 
tax on gold ore sent as back loading to the coast " 
is easily made: Rich parcels of ore — say, 50 oz. 
stone — are charged a higher rate than lower grade 
parcels — say. 3 oz. stone — on the simple principle 
that goods of a high value are placed in a higher 
class for railway freight charges than goods of a 
lower value. This was all arranged with the con- 
currence of the Chamber of Mines at Kalgoorlie, 
and the mine managers, who thought the rates 
reasonable and fair. Yet the goldfields' wolf com- 
plains of the railway lamb troubling the water in 
this respect also. 

The Denied Referendum. 

The complaint to which least space is devoted in 
the Manifesto is perhaps the most serious one, 
the fact that the Commonwealth Bill was not sent 
to a referendum. To explain this it would b« 
necessary to include many pages of " Hansard," 
with a large slice of the proceedings of the joint 
Select Committee. That body, after taking much 
evidence, reported by 11 votes to 3 that the Bill 
ought to be amended in certain points before being 
submitted to the vote of the electors. That is to 
say, while the Eastern Parliaments all accepted the 
Bill, the Parliament of Western Australia decided 
that, under its abnormal conditions, the interests 
of the colony required amendments. The Assem- 
bly resolved that both Bills should be sent to the 
popular vote. The Council demurred to sending 
the unamended Bill, but voted in favour of refer- 
ring the Bill with the amendments of the Select 
Committee. On a final division, by an alliance 
between the Bill-at-any-price and the no-Bill-at- 
any-price advocates, the question was ultimately 
lost. This is how Federation came to be wrecked 
in the Parliament of Western Australia. This, 



4 88 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



branch of the question would require an article to 
Itself. 

I am afraid that these few notes, put together 
amid the stress of importunate work, may be the 
means of rather exhausting the reader than the 
subject. Yet I have not alluded to such blunders 
as the making the railway distance from Coolgar- 
die to Esperance 200 miles in place of 235, the dis- 
tance made by railway surveyors; or the pregnant 
fact that the new State will have to pay her share 
of the interest on the loan expenditure on the 
old colony; nor the certainty that the mining com- 
panies, for obvious reasons, will exert themselves 
to the utmost to prevent this separation being 
agreed to in London; nor, again, the fact that the 
petition favouring separation is likely to be signed 
equally by those who are wholly opposed to it as 
well as by those supporting it— voting by petition 
being open, and susceptible to all forms of in- 
fluence. But I may claim that I am not moved 
In this instance by prejudice. A Uitlander myself, 
with many years' experience of this colony, and 
one whose entire expectations rest upon the influx 
of men and capital, and on the development of its 
resources, I have but one object in view, the pro- 
motion of the good of the entire territory, if only 
on the lowest of all grounds, because it brings grist 
to my mill. 

The Position of "w\A. on Federation. 

Although the Federation movement touches but 
indirectly my subject, I would crave permission of 
the Editor to make a few remarks on the position 
this all-important matter occupies at present in 
Western Australia. Of the four suggestions made 
by the joint Select Committee formed by the two 
Houses to consider the Bill, three may be yaid to 
have now ceased to be obstacles. The provision 
for dividing the State for Senate electoral pur- 
poses is open, there can be no doubt, to serious 
objections. Moreover, the Federal Parliament is 
empowered to deal with the question, and is likely 
to do so at a very early date. Probably some 
form of preferential voting, as suggested in many 
quarters, would usefully meet the case. The re- 
quest for the suspension of the inter-State Com- 
mission for five years loses most of its force in 
view of the fact that the Commission is not likely 
to get into working order before the period asked 
for by the Select Committee has expired. The 
undertaking of Mr. Holder that his best influsnce 
will be given towards promoting the completion of 
the Trans- Australian line, and the evident general 



acceptance by Australia of the necessity of this line 
for mails, defence, and general purposes of com- 
munication, should convince most reasonable men 
that the prospects of this great federal work will 
not be jeopardised by the advent of the Common- 
wealth. 

There remains the fourth suggestion, the 
conversion of the five years' sliding scale privi- 
lege into the more practical one of five years' ab- 
solute Customs control. The arguments for the 
change are probably well known. The clause, we 
gratefully admit, was intended to meet the peculiar 
circumstances of Western Australia, but it is ad- 
mitted that in its present form it cannot be of any 
real service. The Customs taxation of the Com- 
monwealth will be heavier than that now imposed 
in this colony. If to this be added taxation on 
Eastern products, our burdens will become so un- 
endurable that one or the other must go. As *he 
tariff of the Federation is invincible, it is the local 
taxation which must yield. Add to this the incon- 
venience, confusion, and probable loss due to peri- 
odic alterations of the tariff, amounting to 20 per 
cent, annually. Yet Western Australia desires 
to continue a little longer protection to those in- 
dustries which are fast rooting themselves in the 
soil, and to make good some part of the heavy loss 
her revenue would sustain in the early years of 
Federation. 

What is asked is that her Customs control should 
be absolute for any period the colony may choose, 
not exceeding five years, the rates not to be higher 
than those now imposed. If this can be arranged, 
there is no doubt that the Federation of all Aus- 
tralia can be an accomplished fact in a very 
brief period, and the difference between the two 
proposals, while important to us, can hardly weigh 
in the eyes of Eastern Australia during the 
short time it will last. There is, of course, the 
objection that this means an alteration of the Bill, 
but it is not an alteration of either the substance 
or the principle. The clause dealing with 
Western Australia is a temporary one, and confined 
to the colony, and what is desired is merely that 
this temporary and local provision should be 
amended. If this concession can be made, I be- 
lieve that the adhesion of the people of Western 
Australia, by a most satisfactory majority, can be 
fully counted upon. May I not ask the people of 
the East if the greatness, completeness, and una- 
nimity of the result is not worth the yielding what, 
after all, bears some resemblance to a technicality? 
This, only, now stands in the way of a united and 
a harmonious Australia. 



Kkvikw of Reviews, 
Ai-ril 15, 1900. 



489 



THE HISTORY OF THE MONTH IN CARICATURE, 





^Jliinii^^ — ; 



MOOftE PARK. 




' Bulletin."] 



HOW SYDNEY IS BEINC CLEANSED. 



490 



The Review of Reviews. 



April IS, 1900. 




N.Z. "Graphic."] 



" ROUGH ON RATS." 
NW, Rodie, my love, be quick and get the kids ashore, aud I'll look after the luggage. 



^«nirw op Bbvtbwi, 
"v a 16.1900. 



History of the Month in Caricature. 



491 




492 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 




SOME REMARKABLE BRITISH LIONS. 

Since the outbreak of the war, cartoonists not too kindly disposed towards the British lion, have portrayed him 
in a variety of unflattering shapes vastly different to the proud, fearless beast Britishers bke to picture, 
Our readers are here presented with a choice selection from the Continental and American Press. 



Review of Reviews, 
April 15, 1900. 



493 



SOME GREAT SOLDIERS OF THE QUEEN. 

By W. T. Steaj). 



I.-ALL ABOUT KITCHENER. 



Lord Kitchener is fifty. He is the youngest 
General at the front. Lord Roberts is sixty-eight. 
Sir Redvers Buller is sixty-one. But when their 
military career closed, Napoleon and Wellington 
were only forty-six. In the armies at Waterloo 
there were only two Generals over forty-six, and 
they were both under fifty. From the point of view 
of Waterloo Lord Kitchener is an aged veteran. 
That is one sign of a long peace. It is true that 
we have had plenty of little wars. The recently- 
issued Parliamentary returns give particulars of 
not fewer than one hundred and ten wars and war- 
like expeditions in which our Indian Army has 
been engaged in the reign of Queen Victoria. But 
little wars do not kill off Generals. Great wars 
do. Nearly all nations go into great wars with 
old Generals and come out with young ones. The 
old ones are either killed off, or worn out, or 
superseded. Hence the command of an army 
always renews its youth in time of war. 

Lord Kitchener, although belonging to an East 
Anglian family, was born in Ireland. So invet- 
erate is the reputation of Ireland for military 
genius that even a great English General must 
needs go to the Sister Isle to be born. His father 
was a Lieutenant-Colonel of the 13th Dragoons, a 
regiment which, fifty years ago, was stationed in 
County Kerry, which explains how Lord Kitchener 
came to be described of Irish birth but of English 
parentage. He did not stay in Ireland long 
enough to acquire the geniality that is distinctively 
Hibernian. For he is a hard man. Wellington 
was the Iron Duke; Kitchener is the Lord of 
Chilled Steel. 

The Machine of the Soudan. 

He is a demon for work, a miracle of self-pos- 
session, and a veritable military machine. The 
late G. W. Steevens, who knew him in the Soudan, 
said: — 

His precision is so unerringly human that he is more 
like a machine than a man. You feel that he ought 
be patented and shown with pride at the Paris Inter- 
national Exposition: British Empire; Exhibit No. 1, 
hors concours, the Soudan Machine. 

A machine works without tiring, without rest, 
without ruth. It has neither bowels of compas- 
sion nor an inclination to swerve to the right hand 
or the left. It is never touched with a fellow-feel- 
ing for human infirmities. 



Mr. Winston Churchill, who served under him, 

says: — 

His wonderful industry, his undisturbed patience, hi* 
noble perseverance are qualities too valuable for a man 
to enjoy in this imperfect world without complementary 
defects. The General, who never spared himself, cared 
little for others. He treated all men like machines, 
from the private soldier whose salutes he disdained, 
to the superior officers he rigidly controlled. The 
comrade who had served with him and under him for 
many years in peace and peril was flung aside incon- 
tinently as soon as he ceased to be of use. The Sirdar 
looked only to the soldiers who could march and fight. 
The wounded Egyptian, and latterly the wounded Bri- 
tish soldier, did not excite his interest, and of all the 
departments of his army the one neglected was that 
concerned with the care of the sick and injured. The 
stern and unpitying spirit of the commander was com- 
municated to the troops, and the victories Which marked 
the progress of the River War were accompanied by 
acts of barbarity not always justified even by the harsh 
customs of savage conflicts or the fierce and treacherous 
nature of the Dervish. 

A Possible Dictator. 

Long years ago I remember Mr. Carlyle telling 
me that he had asked Lord Wolseley how long it 
would be before he took down a file of soldiers and 
cleared out the talking shop at Westminster — a 
consummation which Mr. Carlyle regarded as one 
devoutly to be wished. Lord Wolseley at no time 
of his career was cut out for such a role. But if 
ever Parliamentary institutions break down in 
hopeless confusion, and the nation needs a man 
who would not shrink from cutting the Gordian 
knot of Constitutionalism with a sharp sword, Lord 
Kitchener is a man ready to hand for the task. 
He would have no scruples, and he would be fet- 
tered by no fear. In France he would inevitably 
have become Dictator. In England we have not 
yet developed an appetite for such potentates. We 
have preferred to muddle through somehow. But 
if serious disaster overwhelmed our Empire, Lord 
Kitchener at the War Office would be not far re- 
moved from the Dictator to whose direction the 
Roman Republic was wont to commit its destinies. 

The Sirdar Painted by Steevens — 

There are various sources to which you must 
turn for information about Lord Kitchener. The 
last source is himself. He is taciturnity itself. 
The best picture of him in brief is in Mr. Steevens' 
account of the Soudan campaign. The best picture 
of him at full length is to be found in the vivacious 
volumes written by Mr. Winston Churchill, entitled 



494 



1 he Review of Reviews, 



April 15, 1900. 



" The River War." There is also a brief sketch 
of him in Mr. Arthur Temple's " Our Liviug Gen- 
erals." Here is Mr. Steevens' pen-picture of the 
man as he saw him after the victory of Omdurman: 

He stands several inches over six feet, straight as a 
lance, and looks out imperiously over most men's heads; 
his motions are deliberate and strong; slender but 
firmly knit, he seems built for tireless, steel-wire en- 
durance, rather than for power or agility. Steady, 
passionless eyes, shaded by decisive brows, brick-red, 
rather full cheeks, a long moustache, beneath which you 
divine an immovable mouth; his face is harsh, and 
neither appeals for affection nor stirs dislike. All this 
is irrelevant; neither age nor figure nor face nor any 
accident of person has any bearing on the essential Sir- 
dar. 

—and by " T. P." 

Mr. T. P. O'Connor saw Lord Kitchener, not in 
the desert of the Soudan, but in the Peers' Gallery 
of the House of Commons during the Kitchener 
Debate. He saw him smile not once, but re- 
peatedly, and this led him to paint the following 
verbal photograph of the then Sirdar: — 

Somehow or other, the grim face never looked to me 
grimmer than when this smile passed across it. The 
large strong mouth, heavy covered with the typical 
military and brush-like moustache; the strong, square 
jaw; the tremendously heavy brows; the strange, glit- 
tering eyes; and even the red-brick complexion — the com- 
plexion that told so many tales of hard rides for many 
hundreds of miles under blazing Egyptian suns, through 
wild and trackless Egyptian sands; all the features of 
a strong, fierce, dominant nature were really brought 
out into greater relief by that strange smile. The smile, 
as it passed over the forehead, seemed to bring out into 
even greater prominence the bulging forehead — a fore- 
head that has what looks like cushions of flesh or bone 
just above the eyes. 

The smile gave an additional glitter to the eyes; it 
seemed to impart a more deadly curl to the heavy 
and moustached mouth. Through it all, the face seemed 
strangely familiar to me. I could not make out why, 
but in the end it all at once struck me; it was the 
typical face of the Irish Resident Magistrate. 

Which is a compliment to the R. M. of which in 
stormier times " T. P." would never have bestowed. 

Kitchener Twenty Years Ago. 

One who knew him when he first laid his hand 
upon the Egyptian soldier describes him as " a 
tall, slim, thin-faced, slightly stooping figure in 
long boots, ' cut-away ' dark morning-coat, and 
Egyptian fez somewhat tilted over his eyes." "He's 
quiet," whispered a brother officer — " that's his 
way. He's clever." The occasion when this 
remark was made was when some fellah officers 
were being selected by a trial of horsemanship. 
Kitchener stood in the centre of the ring, with his 
hands in his pockets, watching, unmoved, the an- 
tics of the cavaliers. Not till the trial was over 
did ho speak. " We'll have to drive it into these 
fellows," he said, as if thinking aloud. And for 
fifteen years he drove it into them to some purpose. 

Sergeant What-His-Name in Excelsis* 
It is a mistake to attribute to him alone or even 
to ascribe to him a primary share in the " ever- 



lasting miracle " which Kipling has celebrated in 
the famous verses telling how the English in Egypt 
" drilled a black man white, and made a mummy 
fight." But his name stands out the most con- 
spicuous of all the British officers who gave a back- 
bone to the unwarlike fellaheen. Evelyn Wood 
may have forged the sword as Mr. Churchill says, 
and Grenfell tested it, but it was not until it was 
grasped by Kitchener that its efficiency was male 
manifest unto all men. 

To this supreme quality in men of our race Lord 
Salisbury made eloquent allusion when speaking in 
praise of Kitchener in his triumph after Omdur- 
man. Lord Salisbury referred to this as— 

That quality which is the real secret of the domina- 
tion of this country over such vast masses of uncul- 
tivated people. Our officers have this power, and not 
merely one or two of them, but nearly all the officers, 
whether in India or in Egypt, and they have the power 
to an extent not, I think, given to any other race in the 
world, of inducing the men of a lower race to attach 
themselves absolutely to the officers who govern them, 
to repose in them "the most complete confidence and 
trust, to obey them without question, and to follow 
them into any danger. 

His Education and Start in Life. 

Kitchener did not begin in Egypt. Neither was 
he a public-school boy. He was privately edu- 
cated, and when nineteen entered the Royal Mili- 
tary Academy at Woolwich. When he left two 
years later with a Commission iD the Royal En- 
gineers he had no special mark attached to his 
name. He had not been three years in the service 
before he was appointed to assist in the survey of 
Palestine. He has not the passionate devotion to 
the sacred writings which made Gordon take so 
intense an interest in the exploration of the sacred 
sites, but he stuck to his work — and he learned 
Arabic. The old saying that every French soldier 
had a Marshal's baton in his knapsack suggests 
the observation that young Kitchener found a coro- 
net in his Arab grammar. 

For it was his knowledge of Arabic that gave him 
his chance. The dictionary of Arabic was the 
stepping-stone to all that he subsequently achieved. 
Scores of officers in his place would have amused 
themselves shooting, and squandered their leisure 
after the survey of the day was ended in mere re- 
creation. Kitchener put in all his spare time 
learning a language which at that time did not 
seem particularly likely to help him in his career. 
But four years later Lord Beaconsfield " conveyed " 
Cyprus, and from Palestine to the famous " place 
of arms " the young officer was transferred to do 
some surveying in the newly-acquired dependency. 
After a year in Cyprus, he was appointed as one of 
the Vice-Consuls in Anatolia, whose beneficent 
supervision, exercised under the provisions of the 
Anglo-Turkish Convention, was to make the desert 
blossom as the rose, and to inaugurate an era of 



Review of Reviews, 
Arm, 16. iaoo. 



Some Great Soldiers of the Oueen. 



495 



steam-ploughs throughout the Asiatic dominions 
of the Grand Turk. 

A Lucky Leave of Absence. 

There he remained until Arabi's revolt against 
the rule of the Bondholders precipitated the revolu- 
tion in Egypt in which not he, but Kitchener, came 
out on top. He went to Alexandria on leave of 
absence, and saw with disgust that his leave would 
be up before the bombardment began. He tele- 
graphed for an extension, and added, at the sugges- 
tion of a newspaper correspondent, that he would 
assume it granted unless recalled by telegraph. 
The telegram of recall came, but as it fell into the 
hands of the friendly press man, he didn't pass it 
on until it was too late. Alexandria— no, the 
forts of Alexandria were bombarded. The city it- 
self was in a blaze. The Egyptian Expedition be- 
came " inevitable." Officers who could talk Arabic 
were at a premium. Kitchener's chance had come. 
As Major of Egyptian Cavalry he served through 
the campaign of 1882, and at its close he was one 
of the twenty-six British officers who were en- 
trusted with the work of reorganising the army of 
the Khedive. 

The Link with Gordon. 

While the work was in progress poor Hicks led 
the Soudan army to utter ruin in his march against 
the Mahdi. General Gordon was despatched to 
Khartoum to bring away the garrisons and 
evacuate the country. Kitchener was sent half up 
to Khartoum to Abou Hamed to keep the tribes in 
hand and to keep in touch with Gordon as best 
he could. In these trying months Kitchener per- 
fected his Arabic, and became expert in the many 
Bhifts and devices by which the suspicions of the 
unfriendlies could be overcome, for the unravelling 
of their plots and the revealing of their' secrets. 
When Lord Wolseley came up the Nile with his 
little army of relief, Kitchener welcomed him to 
Dongola, and led the Desert Column with his scouts 
as far as the wells of Gakdul. He returned to 
Korti to receive the news of Gordon's death, and 
to take part in the evacuation of the Soudan down 
to Wadi Haifa. 

His First Fight. 

He was Lieutenant-Colonel Kitchener, now ap- 
pointed Governor of Suakin, the Red Sea gate of 
the Nile. He fortified it and worked off some of 
his restless energy in worrying the unfriendly Mah- 
dist tribes who bitterly resented the extension of 
the trade which resulted from the blockade of the 
Soudan. He had not been there much more than 
a year before Osman Digna turned up at the head 
o* a confederacy of tribes. Putting himself at the 
head of five hundred men, he went out in support 



of the Friendlies, who had stormed and plundered 
the camp of the Mahdi's Lieutenant. But before 
he could reach them Osman Digna had rallied his 
forces, and was driving the Friendlies in hot haste 
back on Suakin. He did his best to cover their 
retreat, but without much success. He lost two 
British officers. He had twenty killed and twenty- 
eight wounded of his men. In this action he re- 
ceived a nasty wound in the jaw, from which he 
soon recovered, and a nastier reproof from Lord 
Cromer, then Sir E. Baring, who rapped him across 
the knuckles for abandoning a purely defensive 
policy. 

It is, however, one thing to advise a purely defen- 
sive policy. It is another thing to stick to it. 
The offensive-defensive became necessary. Gen- 
eral Grenfell, with British troops at his back, had 
to hurry to Suakin to repel the Mahdist force. In 
the battle of Gemeizeb, fought December 20, 1888, 
Colonel Kitchener, who had in the meantime been 
made Adjutant-General of the Egyptian army, was 
in command of the first brigade of the Soudanese. 
He led his troops into battle with coolness and gal- 
lantry, and their steadiness under fire gave evi- 
dence of their confidence and his control. In the 
following year he commanded the cavalry at the 
battle of Toski. He held the Mahdists in check 
in the morning until the infantry came up, and 
when the day was won he converted defeat into 
headlong rout by hurling the Hussars and Egyp- 
tian Horse upon the retreating foe. To his " ac- 
tivity and forethought " the Sirdar attributed not 
a little of the completeness of the victory. These 
fields of battle were not the field in which he really 
achieved his reputation. The fights at Gemeizeb 
and at Toski were but interludes. 

Lord Cromer's Confidence. 
His real task lay in Cairo, where for three or 
four years he worked under Baring's eye in the 
Egyptian War Office. He worked hard, and es- 
tablished a reputation for himself as a great ad- 
ministrator, ruthless in carrying out reforms and 
resolute to secure efficiency. Hence when Sir F. 
Grenfell retired from the chief command, Sir 
Evelyn Baring appointed him Sirdar, passing him 
over the head of Colonel Wodehouse, to whom, on 
principles of seniority, the appointment naturally 
belonged. Lord Cromer believed in Kitchener. 
He had watched him, tested him, and approved 
him. Having appointed him, he backed him up 
through thick and thin. The old " P. M. G." doc- 
trine of the Free Hand and the Blind Eye seldom 
was more faithfully applied than in the relations 
between the old and the young Anglo-Egyptian. 
" Whatever you do, and whatever may happen. I 
will support you. You are the best judge of the 
situation." So Lord Cromer telegraphed on the 



496 



The Review of Reviews, 



April 15, 1900. 



evo of the Battle of the Atbara. It condenses into 
a sentence the whole story of the relations between 
Kitchener and his chief. 

The Grub in the Soudan Apple. 

The Soudan was then very much in the condition 
of an apple, in the core of which a huge grub is 
steadily eating all that is edible inside the skin. 
Mahdism, which survived the Mahdi, and was ex- 
ploited by the Khalifa, went on steadily year by 
year eating up with fire and sword the territory 
over which it held sway. From time to time re- 
fugees escaping from captivity brought news as to 
the progress of the work of exhaustion. Just be- 
fore Lord Rosebery's Government went out, Slatin 
Pasha arrived at Cairo with his terrible tale of 
" Fire and Sword in the Soudan." Lord Salisbury 
came into power with a strong majority. The 
time was near at hand for the long-delayed reckon- 
ing in the Soudan. 

The Order to Reconquer the Soudan. 
The pretext for the first move toward Dongola 
was the defeat of the Italians by Menelik at the 
Battle of Adowa on March 1, 1896. To protect 
Kassala, to strengthen the Triple Alliance, to re 
store European prestige — any and every pretext 
was put forward to mask the fundamental fact that 
the reconquest of the Soudan had been begun. Mr. 
Churchill says that the impulse came from Lord 
Salisbury, not from Lord Cromer. Only a few 
weeks before the fateful order was given, Kitchener 
and Sir W. Garstin had pleaded before Lord 
Cromer their respective claims. Kitchener wanted 
a war, Garstin a great reservoir on the Nile. At 
last the decision was given. " I'm beat,'' said 
Kitchener. " You've got your dam." Then 
Downing-street intervened, and Kitchener got his 
war after all. 

The Advance to Akasha. 

At first the enterprise was limited to the recovery 

of the fertile province of Dongola. Shortly before 

midnight on March 12, 1896, Kitchener received 

orders to occupy Akasha. The earliest battalions 

started in three days. On the 20th, Akasha was 

occupied. The only relic of civilisation left was 

the rail of the old dismantled railway: — 

Beyond the old station and near the river a single 
rail had been fixed nearly upright in the ground. From 
one of the holes for the fish-plate bolts there dangled 
a rotten cord, and, on the sand, beneath this impro- 
vised yet apparently effective gallows, lay a human skull 
and bones, quite white and beautifully polished by the 
action of sun and wind. 

Akasha was converted into a strong entrenched 
camp. It was 825 miles south of Cairo, and about 
seventy as the crow flies south of Wadi Haifa. 
Troops ordered south went first by ordinary rail- 
way to Balliana. At Balliana Cook and Son took 



them in hand and towed them up stream to As- 
souan. At Assouan they took rail again in order 
to turn the First Cataract. Then again they took 
ship to Wadi Haifa. Leaving the river at Haifa, 
they went on by the military railway to Sarras, 
then the rail head. From thence they went by 
road to Akasha, 4,500 camels supplying the trans- 
port. From Sarras, Kitchener's first duty was to 
make a railway to Akasha, reducing a four days' 
march to a run of as many hours. 

But before that was done the Battle of Firket 
was lost and won. The battle was fought on 
June 7. The Sirdar had under his command a 
force of about 9,000 men, with one battery of Horse 
and two of Field Artillery, and one battery of 
Maxims. They marched at night, many men fall- 
ing asleep on their camels. At four o'clock chey 
heard the drums sound the summons to morning 
prayers in the Dervish camp a mile to the south- 
ward. At five they surprised the enemy, and at 
twenty minutes past seven the camp was in the 
Sirdar's hands, the battle was over, and the victory 
was won. Here one British officer was wounded, 
twenty Gyppies killed and eighty-three wounded. 
The Dervishes lost 800 dead, 500 wounded, while 
600 prisoners remained in our hands. As the 
Dervishes were only 3,000 to start with, there were 
not many left. 

On June 26 the railway was completed to Aka- 
sha, and began at once to grow still further south- 
ward, until on August 4 the line was open to Kos- 
beh, from which there is a navigable Nile to 
Merawi, in the heart of Dongola province. The 
first task of the railway was to bring up three gun- 
boats in sections, new stern-wheelers which only 
drew thirty-nine inches of water, but which were 
armour-plated, carried one 12-pounder quick-firer 
forward^ two 6-pounder quick-firing guns in the 
central oattery, and four Maxims. They were one 
hundred and forty feet long, twenty-four feet 
broad, and steamed twelve miles an hour. Such 
was the water dragon which, like some monster 
of chivalric romance, was put together above the 
Second Cataract to carry the Deliverer with the 
Sword of Judgment to the lair of the Khalifa. 
They were taken to pieces in London, forwarded 
4,000 miles, and although seven times transhipped, 
not a single important piece was lost. 

The Desert at Bay. 

The Desert, however, was not disposed to allow 
its stronghold to be rifled at the first summons. 
The Dervishes' vanguard at Firket might be over- 
whelmed into sudden destruction. But the swords 
and spears of the Dervishes were far less potent 
weapons than the pestilence. The stricken field of 
Firket cost but twenty lives. The cholera that 
broke out immediately afterwards and clung to 



Rkvikw ok Rkvikws 
April 15, l'JOO. 



Some Great Soldiers of 



the Queen. 



497 



the camp till August, swept off nearly fifty times 
that number. Nineteen out of twenty-four of the 
British troops attacked succumbed to the disease; 
260 deaths occurred out of 406 cases in the Egyp- 
tian ranks, while 640 died out of 788 attacked 
among the camp followers. Meanwhile, in place 
of the grateful cooling breeze from the north which 
they had counted on to carry their flotilla over the 
Cataract, a hoi wind from the south blew with 
scorching persistence. The boats were hauled 
over the Cataracts, and the advancing column made 
ready to march to Absarat. The first brigade 
reached it with difficulty, twenty-nine cases of sun- 
stroke occurring in twenty-one miles. But it was 
the second brigade, which marched from Kosbeh, 
which experienced the full fury of the desert. Ter- 
rific storms of sand and rain, accompanied by 
blinding thunderstorms, overwhelmed the brigade. 
" Nearly ?00 men fell out during the early part of 
the night, and crawled and staggered back to Kos- 
beh. Before the column reached Sadin Fanli, 1,700 
more sank exhausted to the ground. Out of one 
battalion 700 strong, only 60 men marched in. Nine 
deaths and 80 serious cases of prostration occurred, 
and the movement of the brigade from Kosbeh to 
Absarat was grimly called " The Death March." 

The Entry into Dongola. 

But, undaunted, the Sirdar pressed on. Then 

the Soudan, alarmed at the failure of her resources 

to stem his advance, appealed to the flood to assist 

her in opposing the invasion: — 

The violent rains produced floods such as had not 
been seen in the Soudan for fifty years. More than 
twelve miles of the railway -were washed away. The 
rails were twisted and bent, the formation entirely 
destroyed. The telegraph wires were broken: the work 
of weeks was lost in a few hours. The advance was 
stopped as soon as it had begun. 



But the Deserl and the Simoom, the Deluge and 
the Pestilence, had met their master. In a few 
hours the Sirdar had concentrated five thousand 
men at the damaged line, and in seven days traffic 
was resumed. 

On September 12 the expeditionary force, 
now swollen to fifteen thousand, with three 
war vessels and thirty-six guns, was ordered to 
start. On the very eve of that day the low pres- 
sure cylinder of the best gunboat (the Zafir) burst, 
and all her stores and guns had to be taken out. 
But. despite steam explosions and Nile deluges, the 
Sirdar went on. The Dervishes fell back before 
his advance, and with the loss of only one Gyppj 
killed and twenty-five wounded, the Sirdar, on Sep- 
tember 23, entered in triumph into the capital of 
the province of Dongola. 

The Desert Railway- 

For the reconquest of Khartoum it was necessary 
to adopt another line of advance. The hitherto 
insuperable or all but insuperable barrier to an ad- 
vance in a direct line from Cairo to Khartoum was 
the stretch of 220 miles of absolutely barren desert 
lying between Korosko and Abou Hamed. Kit- 
chener decided to bridge this desert by a railway. 
Before taking his decision he consulted everybody 
— engineers, soldiers, experts of every kind. With 
one consent they all declared that the task was ab- 
solutely impossible. No railway could possibly be 
thrown across that waterless wilderness. Kit- 
chener listened to every one, noted their unani- 
mous agreement that the railway could not be 
built. Then he forthwith went and built it. How 
it was built must be told in our next issue. 



(To be confirmed.) 



The Sirdar's Palm — 

Of the hand, not of victory. Lord Kitchener 
gave an impression of his hand to a professor of 
palmistry in 1894 at the War Office, on paper 
stamped with the Royal Arms. So Maud Chur- 
ton recounts in the March " Windsor " in her in- 
terview with "Cheiro": — 

The fingers are unusually long in comparison with the 
nalm. Long fingers denote fertility of ideas; people 
who possess them are imaginative, resourceful, and quick 
to cope with unexpected emergencies. 

The markings of Lord Kitchener's palm are very in- 
teresting when compared with the lines on other hands. 
It will be noticed that the line of individuality or 
destiny, up the centre of the palm, runs towards the 
first, instead of, as usual, to the second finger. As this 
first finger is regarded as the ruler or dictator, the 



significance of the line of destiny going close to it ii 
at once apparent. When the line takes this direction 
it is considered to be one of the best signs of power and 
success in whatever career chosen. It always denotes 
a leader of men — an ambitious nature that is capable 
of being a dictator and ruler. The same mark is to be 
found in the hands of Lord Russell of Killowcn, the 
Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, and other men of 
similar characteristics. 

The position of this line is also an indication of 
character which, as Oheiro would tell you. is as strong 
in its meaning as the expression in the eyes or the shape 
of the mouth. Ill Lord Kitchener's case it denotes 
a nature that will never closely associate with others, an 
almost lonely temperament, self-contained, and not much 
influenced either by surroundings or by people. 

The length of the line of mentality or head gives un- 
usual mental ability, and tin- fact that it divides into 
two branches at th i dual temperament, 

an imaginative side to a level-headed and practi- 
cal disposition. 



49 8 



HOW "JACK' FIGHTS ON LAND. 



The British sailor is an amphibious creature, 
and fights as pluckily on land as on sea. A good 
fight, indeed, whether on the deck of an iron- 
clad, or on the hot sand of the African veldt, is 
equally welcome. Lieut. -Colonel Verner gives, in 
the March " Macmillan's," an excellent account 
of " The doings of the Naval Brigade at Graspan." 
He watched the Naval Brigade — marines and blue- 
jackets — step from the train at Witteputts, some 
330 sturdy figures, marines and bluejackets alike 
being in khaki. The men were in the highest 
spirits, regarding the whole affair as a " picnic." 
They brought with them four quick-firing Im- 
pounders, each weighing 12 cwt., and mounted 
on the newly-invented gun-carriages of Captain 
Scott. Each gun was drawn by a long team of 
mules, and the joy the Jack tars extracted from 
these mules was immense. Whether the mules 
enjoyed it quite as much as the Jacks, however, may 
be doubted. Lieut. -Colonel Verner describes the 
part the sailors took in the fight at Graspan very 
graphically: — 

The 9th Lancers reported an entirely fresh force 
cf Boers to be advancing from the north-east and 
threatening the rear of Lord Methuen's enveloping 
movement. To hold this formidable diversion of 
the enemy in check, the Guards Brigade were 
ordered up from Graspan. Riding back across 
the interminable veldt to convey some orders in 
furtherance of the above scheme, I suddenly became 
aware of a mass of khaki-clad men advancing 
towards me. How marvellously that colour as- 
similates with the sombre tints of the South Afri- 
can veldt is shown by the extreme difficulty there 
is in detecting the advance of a body of men in 
extended order at a distance, when thus clad. It 
is notorious that the Boers are profoundly dissatis- 
fied at what they consider the very unorthodox 
conduct of our military authorities in thus abandon- 
ing the traditional scarlet and still more 
conspicuous dark blue and green, which in 1881 
afforded such excellent targets for their rifles. A 
Boer prisoner on the Penelope at Simon's Bay 
waxed very eloquent on this latest example of 
England's perfidy (no doubt prompted by Mr. 
Rhodes and ordered by Mr. Chamberlain!) which 
he declared was most unfair. 

The Sailors. 

This advancing mass of men was already in at- 
tack formation, that is, in successive lines extended 
to about six paces interval, and as they neared me, 
I saw that the portion in front of me was com- 
posed of sailors. Slackening my pace, a good 
view of the Sister-Service as they advanced into 
action was afforded me. On they came, steadily 
but painfully slow, as it struck me at first, but 
soon the reason for this solemn and stately move- 
ment dawned upon me. The sailor-men were in 
extended order and formed part of a long line 
which would, in the nature of things, shortly pass 
under the critical eye of the "little soldier-men 
what stands so nice in line," as sings the naval 
bard. Hence, unquestionably, extra care and 
" watching of it" were of paramount importance. 



I reined up, quickly realising that I should incur 
grave displeasure were I to attempt to break 
through the line at any pace. 

As the line passed me I noted how each hard, 
clean-cut face was from time to time anxiously 
turned towards the directing flank so as to satisfy 
each individual that the interval and dressipg 
were properly kept. Many a furtive wave of the 
hand or profound jerk of the head, conveying 
volumes to the shipmate next alongside, did I 
detect, presumably calling attention to the fact 
that he was not exactly " keeping station." The 
results of this energetic code of signals were, how- 
ever, altogether admirable, for no better-kept lin« 
ever went forward to death or glory than that 
of our sailors and marines on this occasion. I 
noted with regret that the naval officers were es- 
pecially conspicuous by reason of their helmets, 
swords, and revolvers, while the marine officers, 
although wearing the same head-dress as their 
men, were easily identified by their swords and, 
in some cases, by their blue putties, a terribly dis- 
tinctive mark among a crowd of gaitered men. But 
it was no time or place to cavil at officers' dress, 
and with a wave of the hand in return to their 
gallant Commander Ethelston's cheery salutation, 
I sped on my way wishing them all in my heart 
God-speed, though with an instinctive feeling of 
anxiety for their safety in the Impending ordeal. 

The Scene of the Fight. 
The kopje itself was like thousands of others 
to be met with in South Africa. To its front, where 
the British troops were, the level veldt extended for 
many square miles. This veldt was of hard red 
sandy soil overgrown with low scrub and coarse 
herbs, and with much young grass in places now 
just beginning to sprout. The whole plain, as 
usual, was dotted with ant-hills of hard red clay 
(uot bullet-proof, by the way,) some two to three 
feet in height. About five hundred yards from 
the summit of the kopje where our foes 
were snugly ensconed, the plain gradually rose ana 
a few scattered stones were to be seen in places. 
Two hundred yards nearer the slope became sen- 
sibly steeper, and the ground thickly covered with 
small rocks and boulders. Another hundred and 
fifty yards brought one to the point where the 
slope, hitherto practicable for men on horseback, 
suddenly became very steep and covered with a 
confused mass of rocks and rubbish fallen from the 
crags above. This was the commencement of 
the actual face of the kopje, the ascent of which 
had to be performed on foot and frequently could 
ODly be effected with the assistance of the hands. 
In places, where larger rocks were met with, the 
hillside was almost vertical for several feet. The 
summit, some hundred and twenty feet above the 
plain, was the usual mass of broken rocks afford- 
ing innumerable sheltered spots where the occu- 
pants were safe from the storm of bullets of our 
shrapnel fire. 

The infantry advanced in a wide arc of which 
the two field-batteries marked the extremities ap- 
proximately, in successive lines, the Naval Brigade 
being directed at what may be described as the 



Kkvikw of Reviews 
April 15, 1900. 



How "Jack" Fights on Land. 



499 



salient angle of the hill, while the Yorkshire Light 
Infantry and a portion of the Loyal North Lan- 
cashire Regiment were on either flank and thus 
served to envelop it. The remainder of the 9th 
Infantry Brigade were to the left, and also in sup- 
port. Thus the actual storming of the kopje was 
the work of the Naval Brigade and the two corps 
aforesaid, and nearly all the casualties were in- 
curred by them. 

The advance was carried out in the approved 
method, portions of the successive extended lines 
advancing by short rushes, and then lying down so 
as to obtain what shelter they could while they re- 
opened fire. 

How the Sailors Came On. 

It was soon apparent that the Naval Brigade were 
losing their extended formation and getting what 
is commonly styled bunched. As the whole force 
slowly and surely closed on the central objective, 
it was obvious that some crowding would inevit- 
ably occur, but it is on such occasions that prac- 
tice and experience on the part of the men teaches 
them the best way to continue an advance with 
as little loss as possible. And now it was that 
our gallant sailors and marines naturally lacked 
the necessary practice. Indeed, it is to my mind 
doubtful whether anything would have checked 
them in their bull-dog determination to close at 
all costs with the deadly line of fire issuing from 
the rocky summit to their front. 

As the men rose for each rush, several would be 
seen to drop to the unerring aim of the Boer rifles. 
These casualties began at about six hundred yards, 
the Boers having elected to reserve their fire on 
this occaision, but at that distance were inconsider- 
able. At five hundred yards they became more 
serious and thence-forward rapidly increased, the 
most deadly zone, as usual, being between four 
hundred and one hundred yards. Within the last 
range few men were hit, the ground being, as is 
commonly the case, in military parlance, dead from 
the summit of the kopje, and the defenders, as 
usual, having elected to depart when the process 
of shooting down Englishmen with reasonable 
safety to themselves was becoming one of some 
risk. 

In the breathing-space between the rushes of the 
assailants, one conspicuous figure was to be seen 
standing erect and marking the station taken up 
by the Naval Brigade. This was their command- 
ing officer, Captain Prothero, R.N., a man of great 
stature and immense physique, who elected thus to 
stand leaning on his walking-stick while his men. 
lying prone, gathered breath for another rush. How 
many scores of Mauser bullets were directed against 
him it would be hard to say. Eventually the in- 
evitable occurred and he was seen to drop, happily 
or.'y wounded and out of action for a time. 

Now the combined line of sailors, marines, and sol- 
diers surged forward again, the magazine-rifle fire of 
the Boers redoubled in intensity, and the ground 
seemed literally alive with the bullets which happily 
had not found billets in the assailants' bodies, a 
sharp flanking fire both from the kopjes to the 
west and to the north lending additional deadliness 
to it. 

Four companies of the Yorkshire Light Infantry 
with two of the Lancashires, now attacked the 
kopje to the north, and the frontal attacl 
home. As it did so, and before the I J >< 



ceased, the sailors and marines closed in until 
they were practically advancing in rank-entire. An 
eye-witness, who was hard by, aptly described their 
apparent formation at the time when the torrent 
of rifle-bullets was at its maximum strength, when 
he said they advanced as if they were arm-in-arm. 

How the Men Fell. 

When one remembers that even at four hundred 
yards good shots such as are the Boers would rarely 
miss men in line, since the trajectory of modern 
rifles is so flat as to make any error in elevation 
a remote contingency, the marvel is that any of the 
Naval Brigade survived the hail of bullets they 
faced up to within something less than a hundred 
yards of the kopje. Of the nine officers who led 
the Brigade with such intrepidity, seven were down, 
four, alas, shot dead. Commander Bthelston and a 
young midshipman, too young to be thus laid low 
on the threshold of his career, were among the 
latter as well as the major and captain of the 
marines. Unquestionably the conspicuous dress 
of the officers made them an easy target for the 
enemy; but all who s£w that advance are agreed 
that no amount of assimilation in dress could have 
rendered the officers of the Naval Brigade less con- 
spicuous. It was their general bearing and reck- 
less gallantry that caused to be concentrated on 
them the unerring fire of those ten per cent, 
of selected marksmen whom Boer notions of 
civilised warfare had especially detailed for shoot- 
ing down all officers. Some days after the fight, 
a soldier-officer, who has seen much active service, 
and who himself stormed the hill with con- 
spicuous gallantry, said in my hearing to 
a sailor-officer: " Your fellows are too brave; it 
is utterly useless for you to go on as you do, for 
you will only all get killed in this sort of war- 
fare. I saw your officers walking about in front 
of their men, even when the latter were taking 
cover, just as if they were carrying on on board- 
ship." 

The Boers, as usual, having enjoyed the luxury of 
shooting down our men at a safe distance did not 
wait to make any closer acquaintance with them. 
On our gallant fellows reaching the summit, breath- 
less and panting to be at them with the bayonet, no 
defenders were to be seen, much to the indignation 
of our men and of the sailors especially. 

The Victory, 

A short check now occurred. The small kopje to 
the north was still held by a party of the enemy 
under the command of a gigantic Boer rendered 
especially conspicuous by a new yellow straw hat. 
The fire from the west kopje also checked further 
advance down the reverse slope of the hill. Soon, 
however, the Yorkshire Light Infantry and Lan- 
cashires on the right charged in, while far on the 
left the Northumberland Fusiliers swarmed up the 
height; and once again the Boers vanished. The 
fire from the kopje thus captured enfiladed the . 
whole Boer position, and the remainder fell back. 
As our men crowned the line of heights on either 
flank a few mounted men, who had bravely re- 
mained as a rear-guard, were seen rapidly disap- 
pearing across the broken ground and valleys to the 
north. 

Hiding across the stony declivity below the fatal 
kopje, one came across abundant proof of the severe 
ordeal our men had gone through. The Yorkshires 



500 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1 goo. 



had suffered considerably, three officers and fifty 
men having fallen; but it was where the Naval 
Brigade had advanced that the slaughter was so 
painfully apparent. In a comparatively small piece 
of ground lay six officers and close upon one hun- 
dred sailors and marines. The heavy losses of the 
marines in comparison with those of the sailors 
(the proportion being over four times as great) 
are to a considerable extent accounted for by the 
fact that the marines appear to have come in for a 
deadly flanking-flre from a small kopje, which the 
sailors in some measure escaped, owing to the con- 
figuration of the ground. The Marine Artillery, 
who lost no fewer than twenty-six out of their 
total strength of fifty-seven, doubtless afforded a 
better target by reason of their greater stature, and 
also to their wearing blue putties. A further pos- 
sible explanation, which I merely record as it 
struck me at the time, may be that our sailors, 
when lying down among the scattered rocks with 
their khaki-covered straw hats covering most of 
their faces, were a much less conspicuous mark 
to fire at than the marines, who were bigger men 
and wore helmets. 

"We Don't Get Such a Show Every Day"! 

In the instance before us, the Naval Brigade, 
save and excepting those who formed the gun's 
crews, had not seen " much of the fun " (to use 
their own expressive phrase) two days previously, 
and in consequence were proportionately dissatis- 
fied. Technically supposed to act as escort to the 
guns, — a position which, save in unusual circum- 



stances, is a passive and uninteresting one — they 
one and all yearned for an opportunity to show 
the soldiers what they could do in the field. The 
peculiar views of the sailors on this point is well 
shown by a bluejacket's retort to a soldier's kindly- 
meant hint that it would be better if the sailors 
would open out a bit so as not to offer such easy 
targets to the foe. Quoth the bluejacket, " Oh, 
well, you see, after all we don't get such a show as 
this every day"! They had one and all, from 
captain to seaman and from major to private of 
marines, come out to take part in the show; and 
a leading part they certainly took. 

I shall never forget the faces of some of those 
who had fallen in the final rush. They lay about 
in every attitude, many with their rifles, with 
bayonets fixed, tightly clutched in their hands and 
in some cases still held at the charge. There were 
the same hard-featured, clean-cut faces which but 
a short time before I had watched laboriously skir- 
mishing across the veldt, now pale in death, but 
with the same set expression of being in terrible 
earnest to see the business through. 

As the victorious British force stormed over the 
hill and the artillery crowned the heights to shell 
the main body of the flying Boers, now some three 
thousand yards distant, a staff-officer near me said 
to the commanding-officer of the Yorkshire Light 
Infantry. " How splendidly your men went up that 
hill!" The colonel, while acknowledging the well- 
merited compliment, added: " But did you watch 
the Naval Brigade? By Heaven, I never saw any- 
thing so magnificent in my life!" There was no 
man there that day who will not echo these words. 



Forty Years of British Trade. 

In the " Nineteenth Century " for March Mr. 
Michrel Mulhall surveys the progress of British 
trade since 1859. In 1899, for the first time in 
history, the external commerce of a single nation 
has exceeded 800 millions sterling, for British trade 
in 1899 amounted to 815 millions. Mr. Mulhall's 
survey is classified geographically, and is little 
more than a host of figures; but I quote his sum- 
mary, which contains the essence of his figures: — 

1. The ratio of British trade per inhabitant in 1899 
was higher than at any previous date. 

2. The growth of our trade since 1868 has been un- 
equal, imports having risen 72, and exports only 50, 
per cent. 

3. Imports from Germany, France, Holland, and 
Belgium are increasing with great rapidity, while ex- 
ports are declining except to Germany. 

4. Spain has doubled her trade with us since 1868. 
On the other hand, our dealings with Italy have fallen 
remarkably. 

5. Our relations with the United States have grown 
three times as much as with our colonies, imports being 
to exports as three to one. 

6. South America (except Argentina) is slipping away 
from British, and passing into German, hands. 



7. In the Far East we find our trade with China 
falling heavily, while it has quadrupled with Japan. It 
is declining with India and Egypt. 

8. Australia and Canada send us more and more of 
their products in each decade, but take less of our mer- 
chandise than before. 

9. There has been a great increase in our trade with 
South Africa, while our dealings with British West 
Indies have diminished. 

10. The balance of trade against Great Britain is 150 
millions yearly, Which is covered by the earnings of 
our merchant navy and foreign investments. 

11. Net imports of bullion in 40 years averaged three 
millions yearly: 4J millions lin the decade 1889-98. 

12. The trade of 1899 showed an increase over 1898 
of 15 millions of imported merchandise, and 36 millions 
exports. 



'■ The Sanity of Wellington " is a title with some- 
thing of a challenge in it. Mr. David Hannay, 
who uses it in " Macmillan's " this month, does not 
mean to rebut charges of insanity, but to affirm 
his hero's possession of " pure and simple sanity, 
the absolute good sense of a man whose mind dealt 
naturally with facts, saw them clearly, and recog- 
nised them in a purely scientific spirit." 



April 15, 1900. 



The Review of Reviews. 



1. 



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The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



A BOX OF 



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Bradley and Mr. Brinsley Le Fanu. 



CONTENTS OF THE BOX. 

j iEsop's Fables. Part I. With 215 Drawings. 
I „ ,. Part II. „ 162 

( Nursery Rhymes. With 79 Original Drawings. 
\ Nursery Tales. „ 164 „ „ 

( Reynard the Fox. ,, 184 „ „ 

) Brer Rabbit. „ 133 

/-Cinderella and Other Fairy Tales. With 81 Drawings. 
-! The Frog Prince and Other Stories from Grimm's 
V Fairy Tales. With 58 Original Drawings. 

Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress. Part I. 

With 58 Original Drawings 
Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress. Part II. 

With 58 Original Drawings. 
The Story of the Robins. By Mrs. Trimmer. 

With 58 Original Drawings. 
The Story of a. Donkey. (Retold and adapted from the 

French). With 48 Original Drawings. 
The Christmas Stocking. By the author of "The 

Wide, Wide World." With 58 Drawings. 
| The Christmas Tree and Other Fairy Stories. 
\ By Hans Andersen. With 70 Drawings. 

/"Gulliver's Travels Among the Little People of Liliput. 

By Dean Swift. With 50 Original Drawings. 
j Gulliver Among the Giants. By Dean Swift. With 44 
l_ Original Drawings. 

/ The Ugly Duckling and Other Stories from Hans 
) Andersen. With 55 Original Drawings. 

J Eyes and No Eyes, and the Three Giants. With 50 

Original Drawings. 
Our Mother Queen. By W. T. Stead. 

With 52 Original Drawings. 
The Jubilee Story B»ok. By W. T. Stead. 

With 67 Original Drawings. 
I Twice One are Two. With 135 Original Drawings. 
I More Nursery Rhymes. ,, 62 „ ,, 

/ Tales from the Travels of Baron Munchausen. 

With 58 Original Drawings, 
j Sindbad the Sailor (from " The Arabian Nights.") 
(. With 54 Original Drawings. 

The Empress of Russia, in acknow- 
ledging receipt of a set for the little Grand 
Duchess, writes : " I am enchanted with 
the admirable pictures." 



Vol. 

i. 
ii. 
in. 

IV. 



VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

x. 

XI. 

XII. 



Sent Post Free to any address in Australasia on receipt of 10/-. 
REVIEW OF REVIEWS," 167-9 QUEEN STREET, MELBOURNE. 



April 15, 1900. 



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hi. 



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OF THE 



WarTA 




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and well executed, the majority being scenes at the front, portraits, and plans of several fights. 
Altogether, ' Battle Smoke ' is a capital production." 



Each number consists of twenty pages of the best WAR PICTURES re- 
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anything produced in England or America. 

Arrangements have been made with many of the leading illustrated papers 
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LECTION OF THE BEST WAR PICTURES. 

The LETTERPRESS does not pretend to give any formal history of 
each stage of the WAR, but consists of short, bright, readable paragraphs. 

Nos. I. and II., now published, in addition to being MAGNIFICENTLY 
ILLUSTRATED, contain:— 



PERSONAL GOSSIP. 

SOLDIERS' LETTERS. 

STRIKING UTTERANCES ON THE WAR. 

TRICKS IN BATTLE. 

CAMP FIRE GOSSIP. 

DEEDS OP DARING. 

" PURPLE PATCHES " FROM THE WAR 

CORRESPONDENTS. 
BATTLE GOSSD?. 



BATTLE INCIDENTS. 

WAR FACTS 

WHAT THE DESPATCHES SAY. 

IN THE HOSPITAL. 

LETTERS FROM AUSTRALIANS. 

WHERE THE FIGHTING IS. 

THE MACHINERY OF WAR. 

BATTLE PICTURES. 

CAMP SCENES. 



" BATTLE SMOKF " is thus, in prose and picture, the best, most varied 
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" Man in the Street" most wants to see and read. 



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and the FIRST SIX NUMBERS (Vol. I.) will be sent to your address POST FKJEE. 



IV. 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1 goo. 



J 00 VOLUMES FOR j£ \ 

~QJW~ 



<* <* THE MASTERPIECE LIBRARY. * <* 



This library consists of a series of 
books originally issued in cheap form 
by Mr. W. T. Stead, in London. it 
covers the masterpieces of the most cele- 
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country, and consists of about an equal 
number of volumes of poetry and prose. 
A glance at the list of books given on 
pages following will at once satisfy the 
reader that the works of none but the 
best authors have been selected. These 
books have now been gathered together 
and are being offered to the Australian 
public, securely packed in two neat cabi- 
nets, for the wonderful price of 20s. 

Lord Sal- 
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of 'the 
"Master - 
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it was "the 
most effec- 
tive agency 
that lias yet 
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ci ivered for 
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best litera- 
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iliar to the 
mass of the 
n a t . i o n." 
Lord Rose- 
berv also expressed his appreciation of 
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words: " Your series adds another to the 
lavish opportunities of self-education that 
the present day affords." But the tes- 
timony that is even more convincing than 
that of either Lord Salisbury or Lord 




Rosebery is the practical one expressed 
by the public of England. The fact that 
during the last eighteen months the sale 
of these books totalled within a few 
thousands of fourteen millions, conveys 
some idea of the popularity and success 
that has already attended the " Master- 
piece Library." 

It will perhaps be imagined, from 
the remarkably low price of the set, and 
from the enormous sales effected, that 
the books are got up more or less in a 
newspaper form. This is not so. They 
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clearly printed, and very convenient for 
the pocket. The picture reproduced 
herewith is a photograph direct from the 
original cases containing the 100 
volumes. 

It is now possible for any poor man or 
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a less total outlav than they would have- 
to pay for one of the many books con- 
tained in the series. The following list 
covers the majority of the books and 
authors of the series. 

CONTENTS. 

Ma'eaulay's " Lays of Ancient Rome." 
Scott's " Marmion." 
Byron's - Childe Harold." 
Lowell's Poems f Selections), 
limns' I'ocnis (Selections). 

Shakespeare's " Romeo and Juliet." 

Longfellow's Poems. 

Mrs. Browning's Poems (Selections). 

Select inns from Thomas Campbell. 

Milton's "Paradise Lost." 

Stories, The Earthly Paradise (Morris). 

\\ hittier, the Quaker Poet. 

Tales from Chaucer, Prose and Verse. 

Moore's Irish Melodies. 

Selections from Bryant's Poems. 

Story of St. (ieorge and the Dragon. 

I'ocnis by Keats. 

Scott's " Lady of the Lake." 

Shakespeare's " Julius Caesar." 

Pope's " Essay on Man," &c. 



April 15, 1900. 



The Review of Reviews. 



Tom Hood. 

"Ancient Mariner," &c. 
Matthew Arnold. 
Walt Whitman. 
Poems of Shelley. 
Clough's iLove Story of a 

Young Man. 
Ingoldsby Legends. 
Scott's Lay of the Last 

Minstrel." 
Wordsworth. 
Poems of Cowper. 
Poems of Southey. 
Poems of Dry den. 
Legends and Ballads. 
Mrs. Henians' and Eliza 

Cook s Poems. 
" Paradise Regained." 
Gray and Goldsmith. 
Irish Ballads. 
"As You Like It." 
Poe, Holmes, and Emer- 
son. 
Thomson's "' Seasons." 
Keble's "Christian Year." 
" She." Rider Haggard. 
"Monte Christo." Dumas. 
"The Scarlet Letter." 
"The Vengeance of 

Monte Christo." 
"It is Never too Late to 

Mend." Reade. 
"Lay Down Your Arms." 

Suttner. 
" Coningshy." Disraeli. 
"The Tower of London." 

Ainsworth. 
"The Last Days of Pom- 
peii." Lytton. 
"Jane Eyre." Bronte. 
"Pride and Prejudice." 

Jane Austen. 
"Hypatia." Kingsley. 
"Charles O'Malley." 
"Uncle Tom's Cabin." 
" Schonberg - Cotta 

Family." 
"The Queen's Diamonds." 

Dumas. 
"Xnemi, the Brigand's 

Daughter." 
"The Fifth Form al St. 

Dominic's." 
" Five Weeks in a Bid- 
loon." Verne. 
"Mr. Midshipman Easy." 

Marryat. 
" Robert Falconer." 
Les Miserables, " Fan- 
tine." Hugo. 
"Handy Andy." Lover. 
"Ivanhoe." Scott. 
" Little Women." Louisa 

M. Alcott. 
"Old St. Paul's." Ains- 
worth. 
" Helen's Babies." 
"Valentine Vox." Henry 

Cockton. 
"The Scalp Hunters." 

Mayne Reid. 
Les Miserable.?, "Co- 
sette." Hugo. 
&c, &c. 



FACSIMILE PACE OF ,£1 LIBRARY. THE SET CONTAINS OVER 6000 PACES. 



L— THE LAYS OF ANCIENT ROME. 



PART I. 

HORATIUS.* 

A Lay made about the Year of the City CCCLX. 

Tub following ballad is supposed to have been made about a hundred and 
twenty years after the war which it celebrates, and just before the taking of 
Rome by the Gauls. The author seems to have been an honest citizen, proud of 
the military glory of his country, sick of the disputes of factions, and much given 
to pining after good old times which had never really existed. The allusion, how- 
over, to the partial manner in which the public lands were allotted, could proceed 
only from a plebeian ; and the allusion to the fraudulent sale of spoils marks the 
date of the poem, and shows that the poet shared in the general discontent with 
which the proceedings of Camillus, after the taking of Vcii were regarded. 



Lars Porsena of Clusium 

By the Nine Gods he swore 
That the great house of Tarquin 

Should suffer wrong no more. 
By the Nine Gods he swore it, 

And named a trysting day, 
And bade his messengers ride forth, 
East and west and south and north, 

To summo" his array. 

11. 
East and west and south and north 

The messengers ride fast, 
And tower and town and cottage 

Have heard the trumpet's blast. 
Shame on the false Etruscan 

Who lingers in his home, 
When Porsena of Clusium 

Is on the march for Rome. 



in. 

The horsemen and the foot in im 

Are pouring in amain 
From many a stately market-place ; 

From many a fruitful plain ; 
From many a lonely hamlet, 

Which, hid by beach and pine, 
Like an eagle's nest, hangs on the 
crest 

Of purple Apcnnine; 

IV. 

From lordly Volateme, 

Where scowls the far-famed hold 
Piled by the hands of giants 

For godlike kings of old ; 
From seagirt Populonia, 

Whose, sentinels descry 
Sardinia's snowy mountain-tops 

Fringing the southern sky; 



* The legend of Horatius Codes, as rold by Livy, is briefly this. Two hundred and fort y-five years 
after the founding- of Rome, and two years after the expulsion of the Tarquins, Lars Porse 
Clusium rallied the Etruscan tribes for an attack upon Koine. The citizens, o\ eru helmed by the 
overpowering- number of their foes, fell back upon the city. Jauieulum, which defended the 
approaches of the bridge crossing the Tiber, was taken. The order was then given to destroy the 
bridge. This work required time, and in order to check the advance of the enemy three illusl i 
Romans, Horatius Codes, Spurius Lartiusand Herminius, undertook to hold the bridge. This 
they achieved, performing- prodigies of valour. As the bridge was reeling to its fall, Spurius I 
and Herminius darted back and reached the other side in safety, leaving Horatius Cool 

■ 'i> of the Gate, alone. He flung- himself into the swollen fiber and swam safe] \ ■ ts 

tu> bid flood. The ultimate result of the war is in dispute, but the Tarquins were not restored 



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vi. The Review of Reviews. April 15, 1900. 



'THE 'SOUTHERN CROSS' IS THE GREATEST 
RELIGIOUS PAPER IN AUSTRALIA." 

"Sketch" (London). 



The Southern Cross 

A WEEKLY JOURNAL OF RELIGIOUS LITERATURE. 



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The "Southern Cross " is an evangelical paper, which belongs 
to no one denomination, but represents the great interests which belong- 
to all Christian Churches. Its contributors are ministers and members 
of all the evangelical Churches. 

The " Southern Cross " offers its readers articles collected over 
the whole range of current religious literature, and representing the 
best thoughts of the best thinkers of every school. It is thus 
a budget of the best and most stimulating Christian literature of the 
day, and supplies exactly the reading which every minister, every Sun- 
day-school teacher, and every Christian parent needs. It gives its 
readers pure fiction; the ablest arguments in defence of Christian truth; 
" Papers for Young Men; " " For Christian Workers; " " For the Sick 
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_ April 15, 1900. 



The Review of Reviews. 



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everything happening in the world of books. It publishes an unceas- 
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VIII. 



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April 15, 1900. 



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portrait gallery of the notable men of the 
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LEADING ARTICLES IN THE REVIEWS. 



How the Germans Mismanage a 
Colony* 

Mr. Poultney Bigelow, in " Harper's " for March, 
writes a sketch of Kiao-Chau, Germany's first 
colony in China. It supplies an exquisite example 
of how not to run a colony. Kiao-Chau is a drill 
sergeant's paradise: — 

The German garrison made up pretty much the whole 
of the white population— that is to say, there were 
about 1,500 uniforms as against half a dozen merchants. 
Six officials to 1.500 colonists would have been better. 

The Governor. 
The Governor was a good type of the hard-working, 
conscientious, and somewhat irritable Prussian official. 
Although a captain in the navy, he had the spirit of 
Frederick the Great in his love of regulating details. 
At one moment he spread out before me visions of 
imperial Germany eclipsing in Kiao-chau all that Eng- 
land had built up in Hong-Kong and Singapore; but 
in the very next sentence he would show that his 
mind was troubled by reason of a complaint against a 
Chinese cook who had washed the dinner plates in a 
bath-tub. To his mind all official acts were of equal 
importance, and he wasted reams of government paper 
over trifles which one word spoken on the spot might 
have settled. Everything official was to him sacred, 
and nothing in his eyes appeared more monstrous than 
that mere civilians should dare to take up his time 
with anything not connected with barracks, or uniforms. 
Yet he was a charming man, earnestly striving to 
do his dutv, and sacrificing his health in the cause of 
colonisation. It was sad to see him discouraging col- 
onial enterprise in the territory under his jurisdic- 
tion. . 

The agent for one of the largest concerns in Ger- 
many refused to return to Kiao-chau merely because of 
the effect produced on him by the Governor. Yet, as 
I said before, to one who, like myself, had no favours 
to ask, he was the embodiment of official courtesy. 
He told me, as a magnificent joke, that these mer- 
chants had had the impudence to think that he was 
going to find them lodging or put up tents for them m 
case they came to the sale of lands. The Governor 
laughed heartily over this, but it made me feel sad on 
his account. 

Strangling Commerce. 
There was, of course, great demand for labour of all 
kind in Tsin-tao, but as the government and not the law 
of supply and demand regulated the wages paid, only 
the most incompetent coolies came to this labour-mar- 
ket. The best remained in Chee-foo or Shanghai, while 
those who sought a new field went first to Wei-hai-wei. 
Though the half-dozen merchants of the place would 
gladly have paid ten times what the government paid 
the soldiers for some assistance in getting housed, they 
could not get their work done for love or money. 
One of mv friends, who represented the largest electri- 
cal concern in the world, I found with a pot of paint 
smearing his door and window-shutters; another con- 
spicuous merchant I found knocking a table together out 
of some empty packing-cases— and all this after nearly 
7 



a year of German occupation, in a province described by 
the highest German authority as peopled most abun- 
dantly with the best workmen in China. The cap- 
tain of the Matilda could not get coolies to unload his- 
boat, and though his cargo was almost exclusively for 
government account, and two lighters and a steam- 
launch lay idle at anchor, the Governor refused him all 
official assistance for two days. 

The Diedrichs monument will remain as a monument 
to German enthusiasm and Chinese labour. It proves 
to the world that in matters colonial a German official 
can rise superior to sordid questions of commerce; that, 
while Kiao-chau can do without trade, it cannot afford 
to be without a monument glorifying the military char- 
acter of its occupation. 

Officially Regulated Sport. 

The German troops had taken possession of some 
Chinese fortified barracks which were found here on 
first landing. Near each one of these a tennis-court 
had been laid out, of course at the instigation of the 
sailor Prince, but these were, on the occasion of my 
visit, cut up into such deep gullies that no game could 
have been played there save one connected with vault- 
ing. I failed to discover anything like sport amongst 
officers and men, and that may explain, in part, the 
general depression that seemed to have settled down 
upon the community. There was nothing to do, even 
upon the Sabbath day, which, in Germany, is pre- 
eminently the day of recreation. So dull was this day 
in Kiao-chau that several soldiers told me it was a 
relief to go on with the usual week-day occupations. In 
Anglo-Saxon colonies of this kind the first thing done is 
the organising of a club for every variety of recreation, 
frequently including tennis, polo, rowing, and sailing. 

A general social club is impossible in Kiao-chau, be- 
cau?e of the social barrier between a Herman officer 
and a civilian. In Hong Kong all respectable white 
men, from the admiral commanding the station down 
to the youngest clerk in a shipping-house, when office- 
work is done, meet on common ground for sport and 
recreation. During my visit there I saw his Excel- 
lency General Black swinging his polo-mallet in the 
same team with young men on a clerical salary in 
commercial houses. A Kiao-chau official would think 
this a monstrous indecency. No German officer could 
possibly allow his name to be balloted for at a club 
other than one purely military; his conception of honour 
is such that if he should be blackballed by civilians 
it would involve consequences too serious to contemplate 
wi l h equanimity. He would have to challenge all 
the members of the club in turn. 

A Selfish Policy. 

England has developed China for the benefit of all 
the rest of the world, and the German trader has 
become rich through the protection of the Union Jack. 
But, as yet, Germany has reciprocated this liberality 
only in phrases. The Governor at Kiao-chau told me 
that English traders had the same rights as Germans 
in his dominions. That may be so on paper, but on 
the occasion of my visit, so far as I could discover, 
I was the only non-German in the place: nor was the 
treatment of even the German merchants calculated to 
encourage any more of them to seek a change by mov- 
ing from British colonies. An example of German 
liberality may l>e seen in the exhibition of commercial 



502 



Thb Review or Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



samples gathered by a government mission in China, 
which was held in Berlin in April, 1898, and afterward 
in Dresden, Saxony being particularly interested in the 
manufacture of goods suitable to the Chinese market. 
The British ambassador to the German court reported 
to his government that no persons were admitted to this 
exhibition excepting members of German commercial 
organisations particularly interested in Chinese trade. 
An exhaustive report was printed, but only for private 
circulation— in other words, every effort was made 
lest other than Germans should benefit by the results 
of this mission. 

England and America give the widest publicity to any 
information gathered by their official agents in the East. 
From the occupation of Hong Kong, in 1841, to that of 
Wei-hai-wei, on the Queen's birthday, 1898, the history 
of British intercourse with China is, on the whole, a 
splendid monument to Anglo-Saxon courage and com- 
mercial generosity. Wherever the British flag has been 
hoisted, there has the trade of other nations settled 
in safety, and around that flag have gathered the only 
Chinese settlements in which the progress of our civili- 
sation has been encouraging. 

Why the Germans Fail. 

To reap good result requires more than barracks and 
officials; more than spacious bulletins and a monu- 
ment to the admiral commanding. Germany does 
not lack mercantile ability, nor good material out of 
which to make colonial officials. The German colonist 
is a prosperous element in any country, and nowhere 
more so than under the British and American flags. 
In the United States alone are more Germans than in 
Prussia in the time of Frederick the Great, and it is 
only in German newspapers inspired for political reasons 
that one hears of bad blood between them and the land 
of their adoption. There is no sphere of human 
activity where liberty is so necessary as in commerce, 
and history teaches few lessons more eloquently than 
that selfish legislation can ruin the trade of the richest 
nations. 



Disaster for the Wellman Expedition. 

In the March " M'Clure's " Mr. Walter Wellman 
continues his account of sledging toward the pole. 
Mr. Wellman tells of an extraordinary disaster 
which overtook his party on March 22, 1899. While 
sledging over the ice at this time the party had 
succeeded in covering 140 of the 700 miles which 
lay between its winter quarters and the pole itself. 
On March 22, while the party was in camp owing 
to a storm, the ice suddenly began to rumble sul- 
lenly and then crack in various places. The cracks 
immediately closed, so that one of the dogs, for in- 
stance, had his head cut cleanly off. The ice 
was shaking and breaking and the sea was spout- 
ing through the openings. This disaster, which 
came nearly overwhelming the party, lost it one- 
third of their dogs, all the dog food and part of 
the party's food, and, worst of all, the basket of 
instruments. 

In an " Ice-quake." 

For a few moments, oddly enough, we did not 
fully realise our danger. To none of us was an ice 
pressure a new thing, and familiarity had doubtless 
bred in us, if not contempt for the ice king, certainly 
a somewhat superfluous confidence in ourselves. But 
when, a few moments later, the very pieces of ice on 
which we stood reared up and assumed angles of from 



30 to 45 degrees; when our entire camp started revolving 
as if it were in a maelstrom; when we saw our tent, 
sleeping-bags, and cooking-kit threatened with destruc- 
tion by a rushing mass of sludge and water, we knew 
that whatever was to be done must be done right 
quickly. There was no panic. There was not the 
slightest sign that any one of us was even excited. We 
cut the harnesses of such dogs as we could get at, that 
they might save themselves. In the very nick of time 
three of us sprang out upon the floe which held the tent, 
tilted though it was with one edge down in the boiling 
sea and the other up in the air; and after a sharp 
struggle we succeeded in rescuing the precious sleep- 
ing-bags, the cooking-outfit, and the tent itself. 

What was most curious of all was that the ill-fated 
party had pitched its camp directly on the one place 
which was dangerous. This was about half a mile 
from an enormous iceberg as large as a New York office 
building. The storm had driven the ice field down 
upon the great berg, and the camp had been right on 
the line of the cut where the field of ice struck the 
berg. 

The Cause of the Disaster. 

It was all plain enough. The mountainous berg ab- 
sorbed the ice sheet, and into the channel thus formed — 
here, as elsewhere, nature will have no vacuum — the 
pressure of billions of tons, coming from rear, right, 
left, had jammed, rolled, revolved, uplifted, down- 
thrust, crunched, crushed, powdered the fragments of 
floes in a death struggle for mere place to exist. All 
along that coast, as far as we could see this bright morn- 
ing, the one spot — the one little rood out of all these mil- 
lions of acres — where our camp could have been pitched 
only to be destroyed was the very spot where it had 
been pitched. All other spots for miles and miles were 
just as they had been. Start an ant crawling across 
a newspaper. Take a pair of shears, shut your eyes, 
make one random clip, and cut the insect in two. We 
were the ant creeping across the surface of this great ice 
sheet, and that is what chance did for us — the one out 
of millions that saved at least one human life. 

Mr. Wellman says that no one now proposes 
to reach the north pole by any other means than 
sledging; that the old idea of the open polar sea 
and navigation to the top of the earth has been 
abandoned. So the problem of modern pole seekers 
is simplified to a plan of going as far north as pos- 
sible with a ship, establishing headquarters upon 
the land, and making a dash for the pole, and back 
again with dog sledges. 

Sledging to the Pole. 

The season of the year during which one can travel 
over the ice sheet is limited. The winter months are 
too dark and the summer months— oddly enough — are 
too warm. The best season is from about March 1 
to the end of May— say 100 days in all. Before March 
the sun is far below the horizon and the gloom too 
dense. After May the snow is too soft and sticky 
and the ice too much broken up. It is true that some 
travelling might be done in October and early November, 
after the snow has hardened again, and this suggests 
the plan of using the 100 days of spring for reaching 
tiie pole and the autumn for returning to headquirteis. 
But it must be remembered that after once leaving the 
land and taking to the sea ice no game can be had ■ 
eveiythmg the travellers eat and the fuel for melting 
ice and cooking food must be carried with them. The 
more they carry the slower they must travel. Two 
pounds a day is the minimum ration per man of the 
most appioved modem "condensed " food. This means 
200 pounds per man for a journey of 100 days, to say 
nothing of weight of sledges, instruments, tent, fuel, 
sleep:ng-bags, and packing. With the help of docs this 
much may be carried, and the period of absence from 
land may be extended to 125 or even 140 days, though 
at first the loads will be very heavy. If, however 



U.EV1EW OF KKVIEWS, 

Apeil 15, l'.'UO. 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



503 



a party sets out upon a journey of nine months' dura- 
tion, nearly 600 pounds per man would represent tbe 
minimum load simply of food for men alone and exclud- 
ing all other things, among them the sustenance of the 
dogs — clearly an impossible burden. 

Literally " a Dash to the Pole." 

S» there is nothing for it but a quick journey out from 
the ltmd and back again. It makes no difference 
whether the base used be north Greenland, Franz Josef 
Land, or a ship that has drifted into the inner polar 
sea— it is necessarily " a dash for the pole," and nothing 
but a dash. It is, practically, a campaign of 100 or 
115 days, beginning in the midst of the arctic 
winter, and ending at the commencing of summer. The 
man who can get his base established just right, who 
can so organise his party and so arrange his weights and 
his motive power as to be able to cover an average of ten 
miles a day, and who can manage to avert all senous 
accidents, has the pole within his grasp. 

A Mile an Hour. 

Ten miles a day, a mile an hour, seems very little. 
But try it once if you want to know how difficult it 
is. Our party was as well organised as any party could 
be. We had the best of everything and not too much 
of it. Simplicity is the first essential of a successful 
sledge trip. Yet work as hard as we could we made 
an average of only six miles a day, about the same as 
Nansen and Johansen had made. Of course our loads 
were heaviest these days, for we were carrying foui 
raonihs' supplies. Each of the five of us had a sledge 
and a team of dogs. Much of the road was very 
rough. The previous fall, before the ice had frozen 
solidly, north-east winds, driving down against the land, 
had smashed the floes into a forest of hummocks and 
ridges. Between these elevations there were pockets 
of deep snow. Winding in and out, up and down, 
over and through these obstacles, we made our painful 
way by dint of much lifting, shoving, pulling, and an 
incessant shouting at the poor dogs. 

Mr. Wellman says that the arctic traveller's 
greatest hardship was the indirect effect of the 
cold. " The camping hour arrives. You have 
been working hard all day, pulling and tugging, in 
a temperature ranging from 25 deg. to 45 deg. below 
zero, and perhaps with a nice cool wind blowing 
from the north. Outside, you are a mass of frost, 
and inside your skin is wet with perspiration. Be 
careful in pitching the tent that you do not leave 
your mittens off more than a few seconds, or you 
will not only freeze your fingers, but find the mit- 
tens frozen so hard you can't get them on again." 



Longevity in the Nineteenth Century. 

In the February "Forum" Mr. William R. Thayer 
gives interesting statistics of the duration of life 
among certain groups of nineteenth-century brain- 
workers. 

Mr. Thayer believes that longevity, a characteris- 
tic which has become too common to attract much 
attention, distinguishes the nineteenth century 
from all the preceding centuries. He says: — 

During the past one hundred years the length of life 
of the average man in the United States and in the 
more civilised parts of Europe has increased from a little 
over thirty to about forty years. A multitude of 
causes, mostly physical, have contributed to this result. 
Foremost among "these should be placed (1) whatever 
may be included under the general term sanitation; 
(2) improved methods in medicine; and (3) the more 



regular habits of living which are the direct outcome of 
industrial life on a large scale. These are some of the 
evident means by which life has been lengthened. In- 
ventions, which have made production cheap and the 
transportation of all products both cheap and easy, 
have had an influence too great to be computed. And 
no doubt much has been due to a general improvement 
in methods of government; although, in the main, there 
has been much less progress in practical government 
than is commonly supposed. Xo great railroad com- 
pany or banking house or manufacturing corporation 
could prosper if its officers and employes were chosen 
and kept in office according to the system by which 
political offices, almost everywhere, are filled. " None 
but experts wanted " is the sign written over the en- 
trance to every profession, trade, and occupation — ex- 
cept government. 

But whatever governments have done or left undone, 
the fact to be insisted on here is that the average 
man to-day lives almost ten years longer than his grand- 
father lived. Indisputably, therefore, the year 1900 
finds conditions more conducive to longevity than existed 
a century ago. This is true beyond question for the 
masses, who feel immediately the effects of plenty, 
hunger, and cold — the great physical dispensers of life 
and death. 

Are We Dying at the Top? 

But improvement in the conditions essential to the 
physical well-being of the masses need not imply a simi- 
lar improvement in the more favoured minority, in those 
who — to make a distinction which is sufficiently exact 
for our purposes — work with their heads instead of with 
their hands. And, indeed, the impression has long been 
current that modern life has been growing more and 
more destructive to precisely this class. Ever since the 
wheels of civilisation began to turn more swiftly, ever 
since the introduction of steam power, it has been 
the fashion to cry out against the acceleration of speed. 
"We live too fast;" " the tension is too great;" " men 
are soon worn out or broken down;" "the pace that 
kills " — these and similar phrases, commonly accepted 
without question, indicate the prevalent belief that 
our era, in spite of its positive gains for some classes, 
does not conduce to longevity among brain-workers. 

It is with a view to determining the truth or 

falsity of the assertion that modern conditions are 

really destroying society at the top that Mr. 

Thayer applies the longevity test. He reasons 

thus - — 

A genius who dies at forty may well be worth to the 
world more than a thousand sexagenarian men of talent, 
so that mere number of years in individual cases may 
count for little; but no community nor considerable 
class of men lives to old age under permanently un- 
favourable conditions. The wages of sin — and with sin 
we must include ignorance of the laws of living — is 
death. The test of longevity, therefore, will allow ua 
to make some precise deductions concerning modern 
conditions, just as the annual death-rate tells us some- 
thing definite about the sanitary conditions of cities. 

While Mr. Thayer's lists do not pretend to com- 
prise the names of all the eminent persons in 
any group, they do aim at giving a sufficiently 
large number of representative names to furnish 
the data sought. Of persons born in the eighteenth 
century only those are cited who lived more than 
half their lives after 1800. A few living celebri- 
ties, whose age already exceeds that of their group, 
are included. 

A general summary of the data recorded by 
Mr. Thayer shows that the average duration of life 
in these groups has been about 68 years and 8 
months, viz.; — 



504 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



SUMMARY. 

Average. 

46 poets 66 

39 painters and sculptors .. .. .. 66 

30 musicians 62 

26 novelists.. 63 

40 men of letters 67 

22 religious . . . . 66 

35 women 69 

18 philosophers . . . . . . . . . 65 

38 historians 73 

58 scientists and inventors 72 

14 agitators 69 

48 commanders 71 

112 statesmen 71 

Average, 68 years, 8 months. 

Here, then, we have not a theory nor a popular fal- 
lacy, but certain definite information concerning nearly 
530 of the prominent men and women of the nineteenth 
century. The assumption has been that modern con- 
ditions are destructive to the vitality of just this upper 
class of brain-workers. The fact is that these persons 
lived on an average sixty-eight years and eight months — 
that is, nearly thirty years longer than the population 
as a whole. Were we to double the number of names 
the result would not be very different. 

It may be urged that a considerable minority of these 
persons grew up in the eighteenth century and died 
before the distinctive conditions of the nineteenth century 
had full play. This is true: but on analysis we find 
that most of the long-lived belong to those whose career 
fell wholly within the nineteenth century. Roughly 
speaking, 1820 may be set down as the year when the 
general adoption of steam power revolutionised methods 
of manufacturing and of travel by water; as early as 
1840 railroads were beginning to affect the distribution 
of population and of commercial products; by 1860 the 
electric telegraph had come into general use; and since 
1860 one invention after another has helped to quicken 
the rate of speed at which society moves. Accord- 
ingly we can say that the distinctive conditions of the 
century have been in full swing for nearly fifty years, 
and that if injurious their efforts would be seen on 
the men who reached their prime about 1850 or subse- 
quently. 

Octogenarians of the Century. 

Our examination has shown that these men have 
suffered no curtailment of life. Look at the list, and 
particularly at those who have lived eighty years or 
longer: — Martineau, Dollinger, Leo XIII., Bismarck, 
Gladstone, Tennyson, Newman, Kossuth, Schoelcher, 
Queen Victoria, Mrs. J. W. Howe, Malmesbury, Lowe, 
Selborne, Shaftesbury, J. E. Johnston, Moltke, Gorged, 
Cialdini, Macmahon, Canrobert, Trochu, Bessemer, Erics- 
son, Ritter, Owen, H.Rawlinson, Bunsen, Kinglake, Meri- 
vale, Bancroft, G. Rawlmson, Ranke, Mommsen, Car- 
lvle, Curtius, Mamiani, Gilbert, Manning, Littre, Verdi, 
Thomas, Hamlin, Jefferson Davis, William I., Simon, 
B. St. Hilaire, Gortschakoff, Brogiie, Crispi, Cremieux, 
Maria Mitchell, Henry Taylor, De Lesseps, Morse, 
Henry, Halevy, Whittier, Holmes, Bryant, Mrs. H. B. 
Stowe, Spencer, Ruskin, Hugo, Watts, Pusey, Duruy. 

These 65 men and women not only lived long, but, 
as a rule, they also worked long and hard. Condi- 
tions under which the greatest workers in the world 
live to be octogenarians or older certainly cannot be 

Eermanently deleterioiis. It may be that after another 
undred years these modern conditions will have proved 
injurious and will have undermined the vitality of our 
grandchildren. My business, however, is not to pro- 
phesy, but to ascertain the truth as its exists to-day. 
That trivEh, so far as our lists reveal it, is that civilised 
society is not withering at the top. Incidentally ■we 
perceive that the possession of genius, or even of any 
excellence in a marked degree, carries with it the pre- 
sumption of unusual vitality. Great men may die 
young, but in general greatness presupposes a strong 
hold on life. By the latter I do not mean mere muscu- 
lar strength. Indeed, many of these patriarchs were 
physically frail. But I mean strength of will, of intellect, 



and of character, which have far more influence than we 
commonly imagine in prolonging life. Whoever doubts 
this should examine whether the longevity of any 530 
athletes of whom there is a record approaches an aver- 
age of sixty-eight years. 



Electricity at the Paris Exhibition. 

The great distinguishing feature of the world's 
fair in 1900 will be the achievements of electricity. 
It is the intention of the management that the ex- 
hibition shall be in this field a record and a pro- 
phecy. 

Whatever was done by the power of steam in the 
exhibition of 1889 will be done in that of 1900 by 
electricity. The electricity will be made by steam, 
but it will be the electricity, not the steam, that 
will drive the thousands of busy, whirring 
machines in the great show. The seat of this 
power is the electrical palace at the lower end of 
the Champ de Mars. It closes the long avenue 
between the exhibition buildings. The " palace," 
in fact, is a workshop concealed by an immense or- 
namental screen of glass and iron. Its facade, to one 
looking down the avenue between the temples of 
industry and science, seems to be an enormous 
fan of lace and ivory spread out against the sky. 
But within this decorative veil ornament gives 
way to the practical and useful. The aggregate 
force of the engines that drive the dynamos is 
40,000 horse power. Michel Corday, who writes 
in the " Revue de Paris " on the function of elec- 
tricity in the Paris show, pauses for a moment to 
tabulate the steam power of the five Paris exhibi- 
tions. The progressive increment is certainly very 
striking: — 

Horse Power. 
1855 350 



1867 
1878 

1889 

1900 



525 

2,500 

6,500 

40,000 



The furnaces and boilers that supply the im- 
mense steam power of the present exhibition are in 
a covered court just outside the electrical palace. 
The steam, conducted thence to the ground floor 
of the palace, sets in motion the motors and dy- 
namos. In front of the palace, concealed by the 
Chateau d'Eau. is the room where the electrical 
currents are controlled and directed. Here are the 
keyboards and switches for turning the currents to 
the various places where they are to be employed. 

How the Fair Will be Lighted. 
Naturally the attention of those who visit or 
approach the exhibition at night will be first ar- 
rested by the illuminations. These will not differ 
from similar illuminations in America except in 
their volume. The young man who sits at the 
switchboard below the Chateau d'Eau will put his 



ilEVlEW OK ItKVII'.WS, 

April 15, 1900. 



Leading Articles in the Reviews 



5o5 



finger on a key, and immediately a flood of light 
thrown on the Porte de la Concorde by 3,100 incan- 
descent lamps and 36 arc lamps calls up a burst of 
applause from the crowds that throng the Quai 
d'Orsai and the bridges of the Seine. Another 
touch of his finger, and the quays and bridges 
themselves are illuminated. Then the great lines 
of the palace of the Trocadero are traced in fire 
on the sky; now the gardens and exhibition build- 
ings gleam in moonlight — artificial moonlight; and 
at last the foaming plumes spouted from the 
Chateau d'Eau take the tints of the rainbow. But 
a description of this sort of display is really less 
striking now than a bare statement of the number 
of lamps to be used in producing the effects. Here 
are the numbers for the principal places of in- 
terest : — 

Porte Monumentale, 36 arc and 3,100 incandes- 
cent lamps. .Tardin des Champs Elysees, 174 
arc lamps; Pont Alexandre, 500 incandescent 
lamps; Palais de l'Electricite, 12 arc and 5.000 in- 
candescent lamps; Chateau d'Eau. 1,100 incandes- 
cent lamps; Salle de Fetes, 4,500 incandescent 
lamps; Esplanade des Invalides, 60 arc lamps; 
Palais des Invalides, 2,136 incandescent lamps. 

Only a rhapsodist like M. Corday can awaken an 
adequate notion of the wonders that may be ac- 
complished when a steam force of 40,000 horse 
power is converted into electricity. M. Corday 
is especially impressed by the anticipation of see- 
ing mechanical productions and the processes of 
making them brought close together so as to be in 
one view, as it were — an attainment that would not 
be practicable for most productions but for the 
"wonderful adaptability of electricity to all mechani- 
cal appliances. 

Electricity at Chicago in 1893. 
While M. Corday's retrospect is interesting, it 
wholly disregards the World's Fair of 1893 at 
Chicago, where the electrical display was far in 
advance of anything previously attempted. The 
Paris exhibition of 1889 was made insignificant by 
comparison. Thus the plant for incandescent 
lights at Chicago was made up of 12 dynamos, 
each with a capacity of 10,000 lamps; the arc lights 
numbered 6,000, each with an illuminating power 
of 2,000 candles. 



How the American Merchant Marine 
is Dying. 

The American " Review of Reviews " has a strik- 
ing article on this subject by Mr. Winthrop L. 
"Marvin. He says: — 

A Dying Marine. 

In that vast material expansion of America which is a 
■wonder and glory of the nineteenth century one gi'eat, 



honourable, and am ienl interesl for manj years lias had 

no share. 

\\ hile American manufactures have increased five- 
fold ^iiice I860, commerce threefold, agriculture three- 
fold, and coastwise and domestic shipping twofold, the 

American deep sea licet, carrying cargoes m the foreign 
trade, has shrunk to one third of the tonnage of forty 
years ago. This exceptional result, must have been 
produced by exceptional causes. Those causes and the 
li<>t means for checking their disastrous op. ration 
justify all the keen attention which they havi 
in the past few years from the statesmen in Washing- 
ton and the merchants of the Atlantic and Pacific sea- 
board. 

No other nation in the world is in such a humiliating 
plight as ours. No other with any pretension to mer- 
cantile or maritime greatness depends upon its foreign 
rivals for the transportation of nine-tenths of its over- 
sea trade. It is a conservative estimate that the United 
States is now paying every year' to foreign ship owners 
for freight, mail, and passenger service the great sum 
of .130,000,000— almost equivalent to our entire customs 
revenues and four times the interest on our national 
debt. No country but a very rich and prosperous one 
could long do this, and such an annual expenditure has 
come to be a very serious drain on even our immense 
resources. As a matter of sentiment it jars on the na- 
tional susceptibilities that nine out of every ten deep- 
sea ships in our harbours fly foreign flags. Moreover, 
it is recognised by thoughtful men that by yielding up 
to foreigners almost all of our carrying trade we not only 
strengthen our commercial competitors, but help to 
build up abroad sea power which may be used against 
us in time of war. 

Peril as Well as Cost. 

This consideration has gained force from our very 
recent experience. In our war with Spain we saw 
great German steamship companies which have grown 
rich from American patronage deliberately sell several 
of their fast steamers to the Spanish Government, to 
be used to harry our coasts and our commerce. 
Thousands of American travellers had crossed the At- 
lantic in these vessels. They had run for years out 
of the port of New York. They had carried our goods 
and our mails and had been liberally paid for it, and 
yet but for the quick ending of the war they would have 
been turned loose to " burn, sink, and destroy " every 
unarmed ship under the American flag, like later Ala- 
bamas. What was done with these German liners in 
1898 is liable to be done in a similar emergency with 
any of the hundreds of foreign craft which almost 
monopolise our North Atlantic traffic. 

Forty Years of Neglect. 

It is a strange fact that this era, beginning with the 
election of Lincoln, which has witnessed the general 
exaltation of the protective idea and a continuous and 
must successful Statefostering of American manufac- 
turing, has been a period of unprecedented ne- 
glect of American ship-owning. Ship builders, of course, 
have been indireetlj protected by the exclusion of 
foreign-built ships from American registry and from the 
coasting trade, but the prime factor in a merchant 
marine is not the builder of ships, but the owner of 
ships. Unless the ownership and operation of merchant 
tonnage are profitable, no merchant vessels will be 
built. The first imperative step toward the creation 
or restoration of a merchant marine is to make ship- 
owning prosperous. If that is done, ship-building under 
such a policy as ours will take care of itself. If it 
is not. done, no legislative ingenuity can succeed in 
makine business permanently active and profitable for 
the sbip yards. 

Neither War nor Tariff. 

The decrease of American shipping is often er- 
roneously said to date from 1861. Some writers at- 
tribute it to the war; others to the protective tariff. 
l?ut both theories are mistaken. The real beginning 
of the present decline of our deep-sea tonnage dates 
not from 1861, but from 185:5— from a year of peace 



506 



'1 he Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



for our country and not from a year of war — from a 
period of tariff for revenue only, not of tariff for pro- 
tection. 

The real truth is written indelibly in the figures of 
American ship-building. In 1855 we launched 2,027 
vessels of 583,450 tons, and 381 of these were full-rigged 
ships or barks. In 1859 we launched only 875 vessels 
of 156,602 tons, and only 89 of these were full-rigged 
ships or barks for deep-sea voyages. As the present 
Commissioner of Navigation has well said, this was " a 
steady and rapid decline without equal in our marine 
history " — and it occurred under the most thoroughly 
non-protective tariff in our economic history. In 1860 
there was a slight rally in American ship-building, 
lifting our output to 214,797 tons. But (another ominous 
fact) Great Britain launched in that year 301,535 tons 
of shipping, much of it iron and steam. In 1850 we 
had launched 279,255 tons and Great Britain had 
launched 133,695 tons. Thus in this memorable de- 
cade the positions of the two chief rivals for the mastery 
of the ocean had become completely reversed. 

Of course the Civil War, the destruction of 100,000 
tons of our best shipping byl Anglo-Confederate cruisers, 
and, more important still, the transfer of 750,000 tons 
to foreign flags, gave a vast impetus to the decline of 
our marine; but the great significant fact which the 
student of maritime history perceives is that this de- 
cline had set in long beforehand. It was as if a victim 
of consumption in its earlier stages had his end has- 
tened by a blow from a sabre. So long as our merchant 
marine was protected by national legislation it pros- 
pered. It even outlived this protection (for the so- 
called maritime " reciprocity " was not formally com- 
pleted until 1849) because of the temporary stimulus 
afforded by the California gold discovery and the 
Crimean War. But when this stimulus had lost its 
brief effect and our unprotected ships of wood were 
forced to compete with the iron-built or subsidised 
British ships, they melted like mist from the face of the 
ocean. 

What the Frye Bill Does. 

The title of this measure reads: " To promote the 
commerce and increase the foreign trade of the United 
States and to provide auxiliary cruisers, transports, and 
seamen for government use when necessary." Our 
hundred days' war with Spain demonstrated that we 
did not possess in our present marine a sufficient number 
of auxiliary ships for a contest with even a puny 
antagonist. We were compelled to purchase or to char- 
ter many foreign vessels after the Government had 
secured all available American steamers. This was 
a shock to the country and a salutary one. It meant 
that under conditions of modem war a merchant marine 
is more indispensable than ever, and that we lack 
this auxiliary of national defence. 

Naturally, as the motive of the Frye bill is in part, 
defensive, it sets a premium upon merchant steamers 
of high speed like the twenty-one-knot ships of the 
American trans-Atlantic line' and the eighteen-knot 
ships now building at Newport News for the Pacific 
Mail service. The bill adopts as the basis of its pro- 
tection a subsidy of 1.5 cents a gross ton for each 100 
miles of the 1,500 miles, and 1 cent a gross ton for each 
100 miles above 1,500 miles covered by American ves- 
sels, sail or steam, in the foreign trade. This subsidy 
is intended as an offset to the greater cost of construc- 
tion and the higher rate of wages and maintenance 
of American ships— in other words, the cost of operation. 
Elaborate calculations by the Treasury Department show 
that it will almost exactly accomplish the purpose. 

The Frye bill provides for " steam vessels which 
may be suitable for carrying the mails of the United 
States and as auxiliaries to the power of the United 
States in time of war or other need " an additional 
subsidy based on speed and tonnage. F r ships of 
the class of the St. Louis or St. Paul, of more than 
8,000 tons and twenty-one knots or over, this subsidy 
will be 2.3 cents a ton for every 100 miles sailed, and 
for twenty-knot ships 2 cents a ton. For vessels of 3,000 
tons or over the subsidy will be 1.8 cents a ton for every 
100 miles sailed by nineteen-knot ships, 1.6 cents for 



eighteen-knot ships, 1.4 cents for seventeen-knot ships, 
and so on down to the slower steamers, which will 
have 1 cent a ton. But this speed and tonnage pre- 
mium is to be given to no steamer below 2,000 tons gross 
tonnage, the modern limit for efficiency in oversea trade, 
and all steamers receiving subsidy must carry the United 
States mails free of charge. 

The subsidies offered by the Frye bill are to be paid 
for twenty years, the period for which a well-constructed 
vessel usually retains a first-class rating. 



The Man Who Composed ''Soldiers 
of the Queen." 

Mr. Leslie Stuart, the composer of this famous 
song, is the subject of a charming article in th« 
" Royal Magazine " by Mr. T. Roberts. Says Mr. 
Roberts: — 

Three years ago, except to the music loving public im 
Manchester, Leslie Stuart was almost unknown. But 
to-day, it may be said without the slightest exaggera- 
tion that his songs are more widely known tha» 
those of any other living composer. It was on the 
morning after the Jubilee day that Leslie Stuart 
woke and found himself famous. For all London wa» 
humming " The Soldiers of the Queen," and the reason 
for this ubiquitous humming was that they had heard 
the melody fifed and drummed by every military band 
that took part in the great pageant on the previous day. 
According to the newspaper reports, " The Soldiers of 
the Queen " was played no fewer than thirty times 
during the procession. The song having once taken 
root, grew like mustard seed in a warm soil. It spread 
to every part of the Empire, and is now regarded as a 
national song of Great Britain, judging from the fact 
that it was played by the Guards band when they 
marched into Omdurman. 

However, Leslie Stuart does not depend for his fame 
on " The Soldiers of the Queen." Three at least of 
his other songs — " Little Dolly Daydream," " Louisiana 
Lou," and " The Lily of Laguna " — are almost as 
popular as that martial ditty. To achieve so many cur- 
rent successes is most exceptional. 

There was nothing in Leslie Stuart's earlier career to 
suggest his subsequent success as a composer of ear- 
catching melodies. For seven years he was organist 
to Archbishop, now Cardinal, Vaughan, at Salford 
Cathedral. Then he turned his hand to organising con- 
certs in Manchester. 

In his character of impressario he was responsible for 
introducing no less a star than Paderewski to the Britisk 
public. An agent of Paderewski came to Leslie Stuart 
and asked him if he would give an engagement to the 
great pianist, whose fame at that time was, of course, 
purely local in Germany. Engaging great unknowns 
is always risky work; but Leslie Stuart was venture- 
some and then and there offered Paderewski an en- 
gagement to play at two concerts in Manchester. For 
the first concert the pianist was to receive the sum of 
£40, and the same sum for the second, provided that 
his first appearance proved successful. 

Paderewsld, who was booked to appear in Manches- 
ter at Leslie Stuart's concert on a Saturday, arrived in 
England on the previous Tuesday. Then a strange 
thing happened. Paderewski was captured by an enter- 
prising musician and gave a pianoforte recital in Lon- 
don two days before his appearance in Manchester. 
The result of this concert was satisfactory to Leslie 
Stuart so far as it set his mind completely at rest on 
the question as to whether or not Paderewski would 
" draw." 

The London musical public were taken by storm, and 
the day after his recital the papers all joined in a chorus 
of acclamation at the wonderful performance of the new 
star. Paderewski's appearance in Manchester on the 
Saturday was only a continuation of his London 
triumph. But by this time he had learned his true 



Review of Reviews, 
April 15, 1900. 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



507 



value from a financial point of view. It is interesting 
to note that when next Paderewski played in Manches- 
ter his fee had risen to £100, and at a subsequent visit 
to £150. 

A Famous Song. 

The story of how " Little Dolly Daydream " was com- 
posed is interesting. " It is a round-about story," the 
composer remarked, " but I will tell it to you as briefly 
as I can. About two years ago I wrote a song called 
' De Baby am a-cryin'," which I played to Eugene 
Stratton. I showed it to him and lie liked it im- 
mensely, but I had no time to fix up definitely with 
him, as he was hurrying off to take part in the panto- 
mime at Birmingham. About six weeks afterwards 
I got a wire from him : ' Come up to Birmingham to- 
morrow to rehearse song. Have been studying it.' 
Now, this was distinctly awkward, for about a fortnight 
before I had disposed of the performing rights of ' De 
Baby am a-cryin' ' to someone else, while Eugene 
was evidently under the impression that I had promised 
the song to him. Something had to be done, and done 
•uickly too, and I spent the next two hours casting 
about lor a way out of the difficulty. After much bothera- 
tion and brain-splitting this was finally discovered. 

"My little daughter Dolly has only just began to go to 
school, and, like most children going to school for the 
first time, she seemed greatly distressed at being parted 
from her mother for five or six hours every day. On 
this particular evening she was more in the clouds than 
•ver, and didn't speak a word during dinner. At last 
my wife said to ner: ' Come, little Dolly Daydream, 
you must find your voice.' That gave me the cue 
I wanted. Here I had, ready-made, a taking title for 
a new coon-song, to take the place of 'Baby am 
a-cryin'.' Before dinner was over I had the song 
mapped out in my head, the words of it, that is; the 
music was a different matter; but I set to work about 
eight o'clock that evening, and by four o'clock next 
morning had finished the song, words, music and dance. 

"Six hours afterwards I set off for Birmingham. Eugene 
met me at the station, full of the original song, but 
I told him I had something better in my pocket. 
Luckily for me he was so taken with ' Dolly Daydream,' 
when I played it over for him, that he forgot all about 
' De Baby am a-cryin'." He had been singing ' Dolly 
Daydream ' for some months, before I told him the fate 
•f the other song." 

An Artist's Method. 

Leslie Stuart's method of composing is almost as 
original as his music. His invariable plan is to think 
of a catching title, and then to write a song up to it. 
He has a large note book, full of suggested titles, which 
he jots down as they occur to him from time to time. 

Leslie Stuart does not belong to that school of musi- 
cians who make a point of composing as far as possible 
from a musical instrument of any sort. Having hit 
on his title, and written the words (he always writes 
his own words, by the way), his next move is towards 
the organ, which, together with a small piano, forms the 
main portion of the furniture in his " composing " room. 

There are psychological moments in popular songs as 
in other things. At' least, this is the theory the com- 
poser of " Little Dolly Daydream " holds to account for 
the peculiar experiences he has had with some of his 
compositions. " The Soldiers of the Queen," for in- 
stance, was introduced some years ago in " The Artist's 
Model," and sung by Mr. Haydn Coffin, but for some 
reason or other it didn't catch on. It was only when 
it was played on Jubilee Day that it attained the tre- 
mendous popularity which brought fame and fortune to 
all concerned in it. 

Leslie Stuart had a directly contrary experience with 
" Louisiana Lou," which struck oil, so to speak, the 
first time it was heard. In America, where they ought 
to know, it is regarded as the most characteristic coon 
song ever written. It aroused quite a controversy in 
New York as to whether a mere Britisher could have 
composed a song so thoroughly permeated with the snirit 
of coon life. Onlv the other day a writer in a Phila- 
delphian paper made the truly American discovery that 
Leslie Stuart is not a man at all, but the daughter 



of a well-known clergyman living in Philadelphia and 
a relation of President M'Kinley. This last part of 
the discovery is probably due to the fact that " Louisiana 
Lou " is the President's favourite song. He will go 
miles to hear it .sung, and remarked lately thai it ought 
to be America's National Anthem. For the benefit 
of the writer from Philadelphia and all others whom 
it may concern, it is as well to state here that Leslie 
Stuart has never been in America, and that Ins coou 
melodies are entirely evolved from his own imagination. 
" Leslie Stuart," as may be supposed, is a " nom de 
theatre." In private life the composer is J. A. Barrett. 
He is thirty-one years of age, and was born in South- 
port. 

The Value of a Song. 

I think it is Tennyson who says that "the song that 
moves a nation's heart is in itself a deed " — I quote 
the words from memory. The poet wrote thus, I be- 
lieve, in defence of his magnificent battle-song, " The 
Charge of the Heavy Brigade," which some tolk had 
attacked as being a glorification of war. In any case, 
he never spoke a truer word, and Leslie Stuart's " The 
Soldiers of the Queen " is, in its way, as muoh a deed as 
the late General Symons' victory at Glencoe. For it 
has moved a people's heart if ever a song has done so, 
and there is nothing like stirring music of this nature 
for the awakening of national enthusiasm, and the in- 
spiriting of our soldiers. 

I never felt the effect of music more intensely than 
at one of those enthusiastic " send-offs " at the com- 
mencement of the present war. I was at Waterloo 
Station, and the crowd had assembled to see a detach- 
ment of, I think, the Coldstream Guards, " board the 
cars " as they say across the Atlantic. The cheering as 
the soldiers filed past was sincere enougn, but the thrill 
was absent until someone began to sing " The Soldiers 
of the Queen." I am a tolerably self-contained person, 
and, like most Englishmen, seldom and not easily moved, 
and rather ashamed of myself whenever this happens. 
I was moved on the present occasion as I have never been 
moved before, nor am I one jot ashamed of my en- 
thusiasm. I yelled to the top of my voice, and waved 
my hat like a madman — such was the effect of Leslie 
Stuart's " The Soldiers of the Queen." 



What Machine Labour does for the 
World. 

In " Gunton's Magazine " for March we have a 
very striking article by the Hon. C. D Wright, 
showing how machines multiply the working power 
of man. Mr. Wright's facts are drawn from the 
United States census returns. He shows that, in 
various forms of manufacture, machines multiply 
human production in a rate varying from 2 to 
2,200. Mr. Wright's figures as to horse-power are 
noteworthy. He says: — 

Taking all the manufactures of the United States in 
1890, it is found that the total horse power was, in 
round numbers, 6,000,000. equivalent to the labour of 
36,000,000 men, while only 4,476.884 persons were em- 
ployed, the supplemental labour having a ratio equiva- 
lent to 8 to 1- Horse power used in manufactures 
equivalent to 36,000,000 men represents a population of 
180,000,000: in other words, if the products of the manu- 
facturing establishments alone, of the United States in 
1800, had been secured by (he old hand methods, without 
the aid of power machinery, it would have required a 
population of 180.000.000; with none left for agriculture, 
trade, transportation, mining, forestry, the professions^ 
or any other occupations. 

The horse power of the 30,000 and more locomotives 
111 use 111 the United States in 1890 was equivalent to 
the labour of 57,940,320 horses, or of 347.42o\920 men: 
that is to say. if the traffic of the United States of 
1890 had been carried on by horses, i1 would have re- 



5 o8 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



quired the number just given, and if by men alone, the 
347,425,920 stated, the equivalent of the horse power. 
Probably, to do the business of the present time by 
horses and men, it would require the number of horses 
given and at least 20,000,000 men. 

The Working Energy of a Nation. 

Mr. Mulhall has undertaken to calculate the energy 
or working power of the people of the United States 
since 1840. He reduces these things to foot-tons, a foot- 
ton being a power sufficient to raise one ton one foot 
in a day, and in this calculation he finds that in 1840 
the energy of the people of the United States was repre- 
sented by 17,346,000 foot-tons daily, or 1,020 foot-tons 
per inhabitant; in 1860, 39,005,000 foot-tons, or 1,240 
foot-tons per inhabitant, and in 1895, 128,700,000 foot- 
tons, 1,850 foot-tons per inhabitant. This shows that 
the collective power of our population has more than 
trebled since 1860, steam power having multiplied five- 
fold in the thirty-five years of his calculation; the 
strength being shown approximately in horse power of 
steam, in 1895, including fixed engines, locomotives, and 
engines used on steamboats, at 16,940,000, or 240 horse 
power per 1,000 of the population. Two hundred and 
fortv horse power represents the energy of 1,452 men 
supplemental to each 1,000. According to Mr. Mulhall, 
this energy is more than double the European average, 
so that it may be said that 70,000,000 of Americans repre- 
sent as much working power as 150,000,000 of Europeans. 



The Romance of the Railway Book' 
stall. 

The " Young Man " for March gives an interest- 
ing sketch of the great " book-stall " business 
built up in England by Mr. W. H. Smith. 
Early Railway Bookstalls. 

It was not Mr. Smith who invented the bookstall, 
as is generally supposed. He made it what we know 
it to be to-day, but the origin of the bookstall was the 
desire on the part of railway companies to find some- 
thing useful for their disabled men to do, or some 
occupation for the widows of men who lost their lives 
in the service of the companies. Partly with this ob- 
ject the first railway bookstall was started. It was 
a curious sight. Papers, sweets, sandwiches, and ginger- 
beer were jumbled up in an extraordinary heap, and the 
stall was generally tended by a man with a wooden 
leg or without an arm, or by a poor woman who had 
nothing but the stall between her and the workhouse. 
They were not ideal things, but they served till "some- 
thing better " came along. The '" something better " 
was the advent of " W. H. Smith," whose business 
story is one of the most striking romances of English 
commercial enterprise. 

Messrs. Smith did not make the bookstall, neither did 
the bookstall make Messrs. Smith. The brothers Smith 
were respectable tradesmen long before George Stephen- 
son made the Rocket. They came up to London from 
Devonshire and started as newsmen in a little shop 
in Duke-street, off Grosvenor Square. Every paper 
in those days — every copy circulated — had to be stamped 
at Somerset House, and the business of circulating 
them was not a light one. But it succeeded well, 
thanks to the zeal which the brothers Smith imported 
into it; and in 1820, the year after the Queen was 
born, the house, 192, Strand, was purchased as a branch 
office, the head office remaining in Duke-street. Wil- 
liam, the younger brother, was the soul of the business, 
and but for him it could never have grown into im- 
portance. Henry prepared addresses for parcels, and 
William saw to their despatch. l»y mail. Frequently the 
younger brother was seen running about the place, ex- 
claiming, "What is that lazy brother of mine about?" 
At length William took a desperate step. Henry's 
dilatoriness could not be tolerated: the senior partner 
had to go. William became sole proprietor, and by sheer 
hard work he made the business prosperous. It was 



a rule that any lad in the firm who could pack up more 
papers than he in a single morning should receive a 
shilling, but the shilling was rarely spent. 

The Man Who Made It. 

Few names are more familiar to English folk than 
" W. H. Smith," the tradesman's son who became 
nearly twice a millionaire. It is not true, as has often 
been said, that Mr. Smith began life as a newsboy. By 
the time he was born the little business had developed, 
and made his father and mother comfortably off in life. 
But young William Henry was not rich, and he worked 
harder than most young men have to work to-day. For 
years, even after success had come to him, he was at 
the office in the Strand at five o'clock every morning, 
beginning work at that hour on a cup of coffee, and on 
his twenty-first birthday he was made a junior partner. 
From that time his influence was supreme, and from this- 
time the firm of W. H. Smith and Son, as we know it 
to-day, dates its history. 

In those days of short journeys there was little de- 
mand for railway literature, and there was not the 
stimulus to extend the business that there is to-day. 
The bookstalls had a bad reputation, too. Pernicious 
books and objectionable papers, such as no bookseller 
with a reputation to lose would sell, could be readily 
obtained at the stations; and the evil grew so great 
that letters appeared in the newspapers, and the rail- 
way companies were at length prevailed upon to adver- 
tise for tenders for the rent of their stalls. It was Mr. 
Smith's great opportunity. The father objected, but 
the son saw a rich harvest in the bookstalls, and he 
was not long in concluding a lease with the London 
and North-Western Railway Company, giving him a 
monopoly on their premises. A big stall was estab- 
lished at Euston, and the change was very popular. 
The public were amazed to find that they could buy 
real literature at a railway station, and a long article 
in the " Times " of that time expresses the delight of 
a titled passenger from Euston with the new arrange- 
ment. 

Sound Lines. 

Mr. Smith started on the right lines. He made a 
clean sweep of the bad books and papers, and laid 
down the rule, which has been followed ever since, 
that no books distinctly pernicious in their influence 
should be sold at the stalls. This high standard was- 
not set up without great loss at first. The " bad 
books " had paid well, as was seen by the fact that £600 
a year had been paid for one stall at a London terminus. 
But this creditable determination of Mr. Smith has 
been good policy, even from the lowest point of view, 
although it has given some people the idea that they 
have a right to complain of the sale of certain sporting 
papers at the bookstalls. Another interesting fact 
which may be mentioned in this connection is Messrs. 
Smith's attitude towards Sunday papers. They have 
never called upon any of their workpeople to engage 
in Sunday labour except under real necessity save on 
one occasion, when the battle of Alma was fought, and 
the news reached England late on Saturday night. Then, 
to relieve the public anxiety, Messrs. Smith departed 
from their custom. But, save in such a case as this, 
wild horses would not drag a Sunday paper from Messrs. 
Smith, and a royal duke who ordered one to be de- 
livered regularly some time ago had to place his order 
elsewhere. Messrs. Smith championed the cause of 
six-day papers, in the agitation last year, and contri- 
buted largely to the success of the movement. 

Racing the Mails. 

Special trains and steamers were chartered in the 
early days to carry the papers to all parts, and many 
stories are told of the race with the mails. When 
the papers were sent by coach, the " Times," the latest 
London paper printed, would often miss the coach at 
the Adelphi, and the man whose duty it was to see to 
this matter had instructions never to let the country 
be without the " Times." When the coach was missed, 
he would follow it to Islington, and if, on reaching 
Islington, the coach was still ahead of him, he would 
follow it with swift horses until he came up to it. More 



Review ok Reviews, 
April 15, VMO. 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



5°9 



than once, in this way, tie coach was followed from 
London to Birmingham. On the death of William IV., 
Messrs. Smith, by chartering a special steamer, carried 
the news to Ireland the same day, twenty-four hours 
before the arrival of the royal messenger; and such 
feats were not infrequent in the early days of rail- 
ways. 

How It Grew. 

Time was when every clerk made a weekly return of 
the books he sold at upwards of a shilling, and the list 
was often written on half a sheet of notepaper, but the 
sheet of notepaper has been discarded long ago, and 
the bookstalls are the busiest " shops " in England. 
Since the business assumed its present name, in 1846, 
it has divided itself into four great branches — the book- 
stall trade, the newspaper agency, the advertising 
•agency, and the library. All these departments were 
initiated by Mr. W. H. Smith. Old Mr. Smith, like 
the dilatory brother of earlier years, had little faith in 
the new ventures, and openly opposed his son more than 
-once. But " W. H." had set his heart on establishing 
a business such as England had never seen, and he 
gained his way in the end. When he was made a 
junior partner, at twenty-one, the .business was worth 
£80,000; to-day it is worth that many times over. In 
a very short time all the leading railway companies 
had granted Messrs. Smith the sole right to use their 
platforms for business purposes, and to-day there are, 
throughout the kingdom, over a thousand railway book- 
stalls, great and small. Then, when the railway com- 
panies advertised for tenders for the right of advertising 
on their walls, Messrs. Smith were again successful in 
securing this monopoly, and to-day they have the biggest 
achertising agency in the world. In the first year of 
this departure they paid the railway companies over 
£7,000 as rent for their walls. 

Last year nearly ten million yards of twine were used 
to tie up parcels at Messrs. Smith's head offices, and 
this twine, in one huge ball, would weigh over fifty tons. 
The string bill runs up to £3,000 a year. 

How tremendous the business of circulating news- 
papers has become a single example of a morning's 
work will suffice to show. On the day after Mr. 
Gladstone introduced the Home Rule Bill into the 
House of Commons, Messrs. Smith sent off 374,218 
daily newspapers, weighing over forty-four tons! The 
average weight of papers for that morning — Tuesday — is 
thirty-five tons, so that Mr. Gladstone's Home Rule 
Bill sent up the circulation of newspapers at the railway 
bookstalls by nearly nine and a half tons, and over 
75,000 copies! 

Fifty-six books of addresses are in constant use. Tt 
is not surprising that now and again some little slip 
should happen in a business so extensive, and the story 
is told, and has the merit of being quite true, that a 
gentleman once received a copy of a sixpenny paper 
every week for twenty years at the firm's expense, through 
the oversight of a clerk who had omitted to tick off 
the address in one of these fifty-six booKs. 

Mr. Smith owed his fame and wealth to the sweat of 
his own brow, and the brain that God gave him. " God 
blesses everything I touch," he once said; and he was 
fond, when recalling the humble beginnings of the busi- 
ness, of quoting the motto on his father's seal, " Relying 
not on fortune, but on God." It was a great motto 
for a great business. 



Tricks of Orators. 

Mr. Lucy, in the " Strand " for March, gives some 

amusing examples of the tricks of orators. He 

says: — 

The familiar story of the barrister who acquired a 
habit of fingering a particular button when he was 
pleading, and who lost the thread of his discourse 
when the button was secretly and maliciously cut off, 
finds no parallel in the House of Commons. But 
whilst in no case ; « mannerism of the kind marked 
8 



to exaggerated extent, several frequent participants in 
debate have certain tricks of action more or less in- 
dispensable to successful speech. Mr. Gladstone's 
gestures, like his other resources, were infinite. At 
one time—it was during the fever-heal of the turbulent 
Parliament of 1S80-5— lie fell into a habit of emphasis- 
ing his points either by beating his clenched list into 
the open palm of his left hand, or violently thump- 
ing the harmless box with open right hand. This last 
trick was recurrence to an earlier manner, observation 
of which drew from Disraeli an expression of heart- 
felt thanksgiving that so substantial a piece of furniture 
as the table of the House of Commons separated him 
from the right lion, gentleman. 

In its fuller development the exercise became so vio- 
lent it occasionally happened that the very point he de- 
sired especially to force on the attention of his audience 
was lost in the clamour of collision. Mr. Gladstone 




AUTOMATIC GESTURES.-I. SIR WILLIAM 
HARCOURT. 



was, of course, unconscious of this habit, as he was of 
another trick, manoeuvred by stretching his right arm 
to its full length, rigidly extending his fingers, and 
lightly scratching the top of his head with his thumb- 
nail. 

The Premier's colleagues on tin- Treasury Bench were 
so perturbed by the fisticuffing, which frequently save 
cause to the enemy to guffaw, that i 
among themselves that one of them should deb. 
call his ill, uii. in to the matter. The proposal was 
pleas Qg, Inn who was to bell the eat': After fru 
discussion of this question in the inner camp, the Dean 
of Windsor, an old personal friend of Mr. Gladstone's, 
was meanly approached and induced to undertake the 
task. 1 don't know how the mission fared. Its cura- 
tive effects were certainly not permanen 



5*o 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



Wooden Gestures. 

Sir William Harcourt, while addressing the House 
of Commons, has a persuasive habit of lightly swinging 
his eyeglasses suspended from his outstretched forefinger. 
He also, when occasion arises, thumps the box with 
mailed fist. When he fires a heavy shot into the op- 
posite camp he revolves swiftly on his heel, looking 
to right and left of the benches behind him in jubilant 
response to the cheers that applaud his success. Mr. 
Arthur Balfour, whose always growing perfection of 
Parliamentary debate sloughs off tricks of manner, is still 
sometimes seen holding on to himself with both hands 
by the lapels of his coat, apparently afraid that other- 
wise he might run away before his speech was ended. 
A similar fancy is suggested by Mr. Goschen's trick 
of feeling himself over, especially in the neighbourhood 
of the ribs. Finding he is all right (on the spot, so 
to speak), he proceeds to wash his hands with invisible 
soap in imperceptible water. 

Pjven more apologetic in manner when delivering an 
excellent speech is Mr. Lecky. If he had chanced to 
be born, like another Irish member, long since de- 
parted, without arms or legs, he would be a much more 
effective debater. As it is there are arms and legs, 
even of exceptional length, and Mr. Lecky, whilst dis- 
coursing on high themes of politics, painfully conscious 
of their presence, mutely apologises for their intru- 
sion. 




AUTOMATIC GESTURES.-II. SIR JOHN GORST. 



Lord George Hamilton, explaining away Chitral cam- 
paigns, or other awkward things, with swift action 
and painful precision, rearranges the pages of his MS. 
notes. Using both hands to move a sheet off the 
box on to the table, he straightway, with equally anxious 
care, returns it. Sheets of paper have an irresistible 
fascination for the Secretary of State for India. Seated 
on Treasury Bench following the debate, he occupies 
himself hour after hour in folding sheets of paper into 
strips, re-folding them lengthwise, and tearing them up 
in square inches. If his life, or even his office, de- 
pended on the mathematical accuracy of the square, he 
could not devote more time to its achievement. 

Sir John Gorst, leaning an elbow on the box, turns 
his head slowly to the left, then to the right, as if he 
were expecting the entrance upon the scene of the cor- 
porate bodv of that mystic entity the Committee of 
Council. Lord Rosebery is a more marked offender 
than Sir John in the matter of the almost fatally in- 
effective habit of leaning an elbow on the table whilst 
addressing the House. In the Lords the effect is more 
disastrous, since neither Ministers nor ex-Ministers have 
anything corresponding to the historic boxes on the table 



of the House of Commons. Sir John Gorst, falling into 
this attitude, has not to stoop lower than the height of 
the box. Lord Rosebery, lounging at the table of the 
House of Lords, is fain considerably to stoop, an atti- 
tude not attractive in itself or conducive to effective 
speaking. But then Lord Rosebery's speech, whether 
in the House of Lords or elsewhere, is so precious 
and so welcome, it does not matter how he chooses 
to stand in the act of delivery. 

Lord Salisbury has no gestures when he gets up to 
speak, but he makes up for the deficiency before he 
rises. It is easy to know when he intends to take 
part in a current debate. If he does, his right leg, 
crossed over his left knee, will be observed jogging at 
a pace equivalent to ten miles an hour on a level track. 
The working of this curious piece of machinery seems 
indispensable to the framing of the exquisitely pun- 
gent, perfectly-phrased sentences presently to be spoken 
without the assistance of written notes. 

Of all the tricks attendant upon speech in Parliament, 
the late Air. Whalley, long time member for Peter- 
borough, practised the strangest and the most inexplic- 
able. Whenever he rose to speak, and he was fre- 
quently on his legs when the Jesuits or the non-believers 
in the Tichborne Claimant were to the fore, he thrice 
tapped with the knuckles of his right hand the bench 
before him. What this might portend, whether it 
was in the nature of an incantation or invocation, I can- 
not say. I can only testify that, during the Parlia- 
ment that met in 1874 and was dissolved in 1880, Mr. 
Whalley sat on the second bench behind the Opposition 
Leadei, immediately under my box in the Press Gal- 
lery. T closely watched for the uncanny movement, 
and never once saw him rise without the preliminary 
of this weird signal. 

An Undelivered Speech. 

During the storm and stress of obstruction in Par- 
nell's palmy days, a strange accident befell 'one of his 
faithful followers. He had devoted much time and 
the appliance of native genius to the preparation of a 
speech in a current debate. In order that the area of 
humanity benefiting might be as large as possible, he 
arranged with the editor of the newspaper circulating 
among his constituency in the West of Ireland for a 
verbatim report. This was made possible by the simple 
and inexpensive means of furnishing the paper in ad- 
vance with a copy of his speech. By way of pre- 
caution against misadventure, it was arranged that un- 
less a telegram reached the office by midnight announ- 
cing postponement, the report should be inserted in 
the morning's issue. 

It happened that out of embarrassment of riches in 
the way of obstruction, the Irish members on this night 
broke out in a fresh place. Moving the adjournment, 
they upset the ordered arrangement of business, oc- 
cupying the evening with the newly-launched wrangle. 
Meanwhile, their colleague, with the MS. of his ora- 
tion in his breast-pocket, and painfully conscious of 
another copy in type in the newspaper office, sat upon 
thorns. At anv moment the irregular debate on the 
adjournment might close, the Order of the Day might 
be called on, and with it would come opportunity of de- 
livering his speech. 

Just after eleven o'clock this turn of events seemed 
close at hand. But the conversation dragged on, and 
at half-past eleven the worn-out watcher, giving up in 
despair, telegraphed to hold back the report. Un- 
fortunately it was a stormy night outside as well as in- 
side the House of Commons. The message was not 
delivered till the paper had gone to press with a full 
report of " our lion, member's speech in the House of 
Commons last night," supplemented by some editorial 
reflections on the influence it was likely to have on 
the course of public affairs, and the conscience of the 
Chief Secretary. 

That was bad enough. Worse still was the circum- 
stance that the sub-editor, reading the proof, had plen- 
tifully interpolated " cheers," " laughter," " loud 
laughter," cries of " Oh! oh!" these last from the Minis- 



Revibw of Rbvikws, 
April 15, 1900. 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



5" 



terialists writhing under the lash of our hon. member's 
oratory. 

There is nothing new under the sun. A similar ac- 
cident befell another and a greater Irishman. It was 
otherwise notable for the fact that it led to Thackeray's 
first appearance in print. It befell when he was a lad, 
some fifteen years old, staying with his stepfather, 
Major Smythe, who, turning his sword into a plough- 
share, settled down as a gentleman farmer in Devon- 
shire. 

It happened that Lalor Sheil, the Irish orator, pro- 
posed to advocate the policy of emancipation at a mass 
meeting on Peneden Heath, in Kent. When he pre- 
sented himself to deliver his discourse, there burst 
forth an outcry that prevented a sentence being heard 
beyond the limits of the cart on which he stood. Hap- 
pily, he had observed the precaution before leaving 
town of sending to the morning papers a copy of his pro- 
jected speech. Accordingly, though unspoken at Pene- 
den, it appeared in the morning newspapers in verbatim 
form . 

Boy Thackeray thus described the incident: — 
" He strove to speak, but the men of Kent 
Began a grievous shouting; 
When out of the waggon the little man went 
And put a stop to his spouting. 
" 'What though these heretics heard me not,' 
Quoth he to his friend Canonical, 
'My speech is safe in the " Times," I wot. 
And eke in the " Morning Chronicle." : 

An Inaudible Speech. 

At best, Lalor Sheil was not equipped by Nature 
for the ditticult task of addressing a mass meeting out of 
doors. Mr. Gladstone, who heard many of his speeches, 
and had a profound admiration for his eloquence, de- 
scribed his voice as " resembling the sound of a tin 
kettle beaten about from place to place." 

Ihere is a curious note of heredity in the fact that 
his kinsman and successor in the House of Commons, 
Mr. Edward Sheil, was equally weak in the matter of 
voice. Once he managed to deliver a long speech with- 
out sound of voice. 

He acted as Whip to the party, a post for which he 
had the prime qualification of being popular on both 




sides of the House. As Whip, he was not expected to 
contribute to the campaign of speech-making carried on 
by his colleagues with a view to obstructing public 
business. As a rule he availed himself of his privilege, 
remaining a silent spectator of the fun. 

One night, after prolonged sitting, when the ordin- 
ary contributors to speech-making from the Irish side 
were worn out, Mr. Sheil gallantly undertook to hold the 
field while his comrades had a brief rest. He rosr 
the third bench below the gangway on the Opposition 
side. The Speaker had called him; he was in pos- 
session of the House, and members turned witli languid 
interest to hear what he might have to say. 

A dead silence fell over the Chamber. Members, 
looking more closely to see why Mr. Sheil had not com- 
menced his speech, observed that his lips were moving. 
Also, from time to time, he with outstretched .inn 
enforced by gesture a point he thought he had made 
But not a whisper escaped his lips. After a while 
members beginning to enter into the fun of the thing 
cried, " Hear, Hear!" Thus encouraged, Mr. Sh 
oratorical action became more forcible and frequent, 
but never a sound from his lips was heard. The scene 
went on for fully a quarter of an hour, amid rapturous 
cheering from the delighted House, Mr. Sheil resuming 
his seat with the air of a man who felt he had spoken 
to the point. 



AUTOMATIC GESTURES.— III. LORD SALISBURY. 



What is to be Done with the Boer 
Republics ? 

The " Australasian Pastoralists' Review " pub- 
lishes a long and able article, entitled " Pax Brit- 
annica," which is really a discussion — from the 
Australian point of view — of the present war in 
South Africa, and of the future of the Boer Re- 
publics. The war, it is argued, was inevitable. 
The criticisms on its conduct by amateurs and 
foreigners have been hasty and crude, where they 
have not been unfriendly. " The English, unlike 
the Carthaginians, do not crucify their unsuc- 
cessful generals." As to the future, the "Austral- 
asian Pastoralists' Review " says: — 

The Australasian colonies, Canada, and other parts 
of the Empire which have shared in the sacrifices of 
the war have most naturally claimed a voice, and inas- 
much as there exists no grand council of the Empire 
in which they have a voice, they have properly ad- 
dressed themselves directly to the British Government. 
The British Government may, however, be trusted to 
make no mistake this time. Should any doubt arise, 
the clear course of those who desire tlie question of 
supremacy to be settled now is to lay down this axiom: 
"There can be no treaty of peace; the Pax Britannica 
will be accorded to the Republics; no other solution is 
possible." 

The Orange Free State. 

The Orange Free State was at absolute peace with 
England. There were no questions between them— 
no strained relations. There were likes and dislikes 
between the peoples, but numerous British lived in 
the towns at amity with the Dutch. The inhabitants 
had no desire for war, though as in the case of the Cape, 
numerous young men were willing to take part in it. 
In these circumstances, the State Government, with the 
utmost deliberation and without a quarrel or a cause 
of quarrel, joined a State with which wc happened to fall 
out. and proceeded to invade Natal and Cape Colony. It 
went a great deal further than this; an invasion might 
still imply a defensive war. and the excuse might be 
made that the Government was overcome by a sense of 
race-loyalty; it might even try and explain away the 
systematic and profitable pillage of British towns and 



512 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



offer to pay compensation, but it can never explain 
away the vain but elaborately-conceived annexation of 
British districts. The greed of individuals may explain 
the thieving, but greed of conquest rather than blood 
brotherhood is now seen to have been the leading motive 
actuating the Free State Government. For this the 
Free State people must be held fully responsible. The 
law of self-preservation, which justified Germany in 
tearing away two loyal provinces from France, applies, 
unfettered by any other considerations, to this State. 

The Transvaal. 

The law of the conqueror is the only law for such a 
case. The people are far less civilised than those 
of the Orange Free State, and will require a more strin- 
gent government, but it must be the government of a 
conqueror — rigid, uncompromising, and just. In this 
State the British element located in towns is large, and 
will become rapidly larger. It is quite possible that 
the numerical superiority of this factor may dominate 
the situation at a very early date, and facilitate dealing 
with this problem. At the worst, as a British Crown 
colony " of a severe type," the people of these States 
will possess more actual liberty than three-fourths of 
the population of Continental Europe. . . . 

The true cause of this trouble, viz., the gross ignor- 
ance of the Dutch, must be removed by means of a 
public education scheme on a bilingual basis; all must 
learn English ; the predominance of our language is 
essential (that, of course, will not touch this genera- 
tion) ; the strength of the conquering arm of Great Bri- 
tain must be felt, so that it shall never again be ques- 
tioned. The process of regeneration may then begin. 
For the Dutch population there must be but one out- 
look. One hundred and fifty years ago the French 
population of Canada had to be subjected to a similar 
conquest. They are now in absolutely as good a posi- 
tion as that of an independent nation. That position 
they have earned solely by their own good conduct. 
Such a position is equally open to the Dutch of the Cape 
and of the reconquered provinces, but they must simi- 
larly earn it. 



Mr. Augustine Birrell on Taste in 
Books. 

The March " Cornhill " contains Mr. Augustine 
Birrell's Edinburgh lecture on Taste, under the 
title, " Is it Possible to Tell a Good Book from a 
lad One?" It is a thoroughly characteristic essay. 
Mr. Birrell begins by quoting Voltaire: " The ne- 
cessity of saying something, the perplexity of hav- 
ing nothing to say, and a desire of being witty, are 
three circumstances which alone are capable of 
making even the greatest writer ridiculous." Mr. 
Birrell disclaims any desire to be witty, but his 
paper proves how successfully a brilliant writer 
can transform the three circumstances referred 
to into an occasion of victory. 

The Gist of It All. 
All that Mr. Birrell has to say is by him oblig- 
ingly summed up in his concluding paragraph: — 

To tell a good book from a bad one is, then, a trouble- 
some job, demanding, first, a strong understanding: 
second, knowledge, the result of study and comparison; 
third, a delicate sentiment. If you have some measure 
of these gifts, which, though in part the gift of the 
gods, may also be acquired, and can always be improved, 
and can avoid prejudice — political prejudice, social pre- 
judice, religious prejudice, irreligious prejudice, the pre- 
judice of the place where you could not help being born, 



the prejudices of the university whither chance sent 
you, all the prejudices that came .to you by way of in- 
heritance, and all the prejudices you have picked up 
on vour own account as you went along — if you can give 
all these the slip and manage to live just a little above 
the clouds and mists of your own generation, why then, 
with luck, you may be right nine times out of ten in 
your judgment of a dead author, and ought not to be 
"wrong more frequently than perhaps three times out 
of seven in the case of a living author; for it is, I 
repeat, a very difficult thing to tell a good book from a 
bad one. 

What is Good Taste? 

Mr. Birrell pronounces Burke's the best defini- 
tion of good taste, but first gives his own concep- 
tion of it. He says: — 

Speaking for myself, I could wish for nothing bet- 
ter, apart from moral worth, than to be the owner of 
a taste at once manly, refined and unaffected, which 
should enable me to appreciate real excellence in litera- 
ture and art, and to depreciate bad intentions and feeble 
execution wherever I saw them. To be for ever alive 
to merit in poem or in picture, in statue or in bust; 
to be able to distinguish between the grand, the gran- 
diose, and the merely bumptious; to perceive the boun- 
dary between the simplicity which is divine and that 
which is ridiculous, between gorgeous rhetoric and vul- 
gar ornamentation, between pure and manly English, 
meant to be spoken or read, and sugared phrases, which 
seem intended, like lollipops, for suction; to feel your- 
self going out in joyful admiration for whatever ia 
noble and permanent, and freezing inwardly against 
whatever is pretentious, wire-drawn, and temporary 
— this indeed is to taste of the fruit of the tree, once 
forbidden, of the knowledge of good and evil. 

" The Desire to be Witty." 
There is thus nothing novel in what Mr. Bir- 
rell has to say; but how he says it — that makes 
all the difference: — 

This desire of being witty, sneered at as it always is, 
has in most cases an honourable, because a humane, 
origin. It springs from pity for the audience. . . . 
This desire to amuse just a little ought not, therefore, 
to be so very contemptible, springing as it does from the 
pity that is akin to love. But now, to me at all events, 
it matters not to whom this desire is related or by whom. 
it was begot. I have done with it. Ten years in 
the House of Commons and on the political platform 
have cured me of a weakness I now feel to be unmanly; 
I no longer pity my audience's; I punish them. 

The Swarm of Books. 
Speaking of the literary output, Mr. Birrell re- 
marks - — 

A great crowd of books is as destructive of the literary 
instinct, which is a highly delicate thing, as is a London 
evening party of the social instinct. To Hmit this out- 
put is of course impossible. Nothing can stop it. 
Agricultural depression did not hit it. Declining trade 
never affected it. It is confidently anticipated that 
the millionaires of the future will be the writers of 
really successful shilling shockers, and farces that take 
the town. "Charley's Aunt" has made more money 
than would be represented by the entire fortunes of Sir 
Walter Scott, Thackeray, and Dickens all added to- 
gether. 

Of positive counsel, perhaps the epitome is the 

writer's sentence: — 

Tradition is the most trustworthy advertisement and 
the wisest advice. 



The proportion of Christians to non-Christians in 
mankind is the subject of a paper by Mr. Harold 
Macfarlane in the " Sunday Magazine." 



Rbvibw or Revikws, 
April 15, 1900. 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



513 



Tributes to John Ruskin. 

Julia Wedgwood, whose acquaintance with Rus- 
kin dates back many a year, contributes to the 
" Contemporary Review " a very well-written ap- 
preciation of the dead prophet. It is the earliest 
period of his genius, she says, which was most 
fruitful. "When he speaks of Nature and Art he 
seems inspired. When he turns to finance, poli- 
tics, and to social and legislative arrangements, 
he has neither sober judgment nor sound con- 
viction. 

A Protestant Catholic. 

Ruskin was a Catholic and a Protestant at once: 

He has told us in his deeply interesting fragments of 
autobiography that his mother made him learn the 
Bible by heart, and has actually expressed his gratitude 
to her for the discipline. His Scotch blood somehow 
benefited by a process which might, one would think, 
have resulted in making him loathe the deepest poetry 
in the world's literature. The Bible has passed into his 
heart, his imagination, not less effectively than into his 
memory; so far he is a Scotchman and a Protestant. 
But he could not be a Protestant in an exclusive sense. 
We cannot indeed say that his writings are untouched 
by this narrow Protestantism: his criticism of Raphael's 
well-known cartoon of the giving the keys to Peter 
seems to me even a grotesque instance of it. To 
blame a great Church painter for translating into pic- 
torial record the symbolism of the command " Feed my 
sheep," instead of reproducing with careful accuracy 
the details of a chapter of St. John he may never have 
read — this we must confess to be a strange aberration of 
genius into something like stupidity. It is so far charac- 
teristic that it expresses Ruskin's hatred of the Re- 
naissance; but it leads the reader who seeks to under- 
stand his real bent of sympathy astray. The spirit 
of the Renaissance was equally hostile to Catholicism 
and Protestantism. Ruskin, by birth and breeding 
a child of stern Scotch Protestantism, was by the neces- 
sities of his art-life an exponent of that which is en- 
during in the influence of the Catholic Church. 

Ruskin as Toet. 
Ruskin brought Wordsworth's ideas fresh to the 
mind of men, dyed with fresh splendour and puri- 
fied of their clogging accretions. Both writers 
bring home to the reader's mind that he who sees 
only outward things sees these incompletely: — 

If Ruskin were remembered only as one who had 
taught us to look at the outward face of Nature, we 
should have incurred a deep debt of gratitude to him. 
but he could not have done that if he had done nothing 
else. He could not have unveiled the beauty of earth 
and sky unless to him beauty had been also language. 
If to many of those who were most moved by his glow- 
ing words it remained mere beauty, it was much to them 
because it was more to him. The message of a teacher, 
as it lives in the mind of a learner, is necessarily in- 
complete. If it is to be a vital growth it must be also 
a fragment. 

A Spiritual Democrat. 

I should sum up the impressions I have tried to 
revive in saying that Ruskin seemed to me to gather 
up all that was best in spiritual democracy. Of what 
may be called his democracy in a more exact sense 
I have confessed that I have nothing to say. In spite 
of some weighty testimony, I cannot regard it as even 
a very strong influence from him on his time; it seems 
to me rather the vivid expression of a strong influence 
upon him from others. But it sprang from the central 
core of his teaching, his belief in beauty as a Divine 
Sacrament. For this belief involves the conviction 



that this table of the Lord must be open to all. From 
that feast none must be shut out. And the discovery 
that whole classes are shut out, that the bulk of the 
world's workers cannot see the beauty of a tree or 
a (lower, because sordid cares and physical wretchedness 
weave an opaque veil before t heir eyes — this discovery 
made Ruskin a Socialist. VVhy, he s [ways say- 

ing, should a message, in its nature universal, be silenced 
by luxury on the one hand as much as by penury on 
the other? The feverish hunt for wealth curtains off 
the influence of Nature almost as much as the desperate 
struggle with poverty, while the commercial develop- 
ment which creates a few millionaires and a mass of 
overdriven workers (so he reasoned) creates also a 
hideous world. He longed to spread the truly human 
life. He hated the phase of civilisation which cut 
oil, as he thought, from whole classes of men the power 
to drink in the message of Nature and of Art. 

John Ritskin and His Vicae 

Ruskin as he seemed to his vicar is an aspect of 
" the Master " not without its place in the host 
of obituary nonces. There is something almost 
humorous as well as pathetic in seeing the pro- 
phet mirrored in the retina of the parish priest. 
These are elements of value attaching to " Re- 
miniscences of the late Professor Ftuskin, by the 
Rev. C. Chapman, vicar of Coniston," in the " Sun- 
day Magazine " for March. The writer proceeds 
to show that Mr. Ruskin was firstly a God-fearing 
man, secondly a man-loving man (why does the 
phrase suggest a man-eating tiger?), thirdly a self- 
humiliating man. He sets to work to prove the 
truth of each of these " heads " in succession. He 
recounts how he admonished Mr. Ruskin as to his 
duty of attending regularly at the " house of 
prayer," and how Mr. Ruskin dutifully accepted 
the word of exhortation. He preached a sermon 
glorifying Jael for slaying Sisera, to which Sir 
James Picton took exception, but which Mr. Rus- 
kin defended. " This," adds the vicar, " shows 
Mr. Ruskin to have been an intelligent student of 
Holy Writ." 

The writer narrates how, again and again, Mr. 
Ruskin sent him sums of money from £5 to £25 
at a time for distribution among the poor, or to 
provide entertainments for the children — an ex- 
ample which the vicar commends to the notice 
of other rich men. At a dinner given by Mr. Rus- 
kin to the children of Coniston, the vicar describes 
the difficulty he had in getting the donor to ad- 
dress the little guests: "and when he had ad- 
dressed them, in language simple, eloquent, and re- 
plete with sage instruction, he seemed to shrink 
into himself as if he had done something not 
worth commendation." There is a strange ming- 
ling of the tragic with something almost approach- 
ing to the ludicrous in the feelings roused by this 
paragraph: — 

The crowning illustration of his humility was some 
time in 1887, when he and I alone were standing by his 
study fire in mutual converse. He said, "I wish that 
I could feel that T have been of use, or done much 
good in the world." I said, " Sir, you appear not to 
understand the nature of the work in which you have 



5H 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



been engaged. You have improved the tone in morals, 
you have elevated and purified the taste in art, you have 
set the example of practical utility, you have ennobled 
labour to the working man, and all the world is redolent 
with your praise. No, sir. You have done much 
good, believe me! if only to set the world athinking. 
What we want is this, that the work we do may 
be consecrated to God, and that He might accept and 
bless it." To this he readily assented, and seemed 
refreshed when I parted from him. 

I was struck with the humble way in which he ex- 
pressed himself and the meekness with which he lis- 
tened to me. 

Everyone will agree that the vicar has proved 
his three points, especially the last. 

" Blackwood's Magazine " plays Devil's Advo- 
cate to Ruskin with a vengeance in its March 
number. The writer of the anonymous article 
will allow Mr. Ruskin no single good quality ex- 
cept his style, and even that was ouly sometimes 
good, and when good style was good style of a 
bad kind. According to " Maga," Mr. Ruskin was 
a pedant, arrogant, dogmatic, rude, lacking in 
sense of proportion, paradoxical, vain, violent in 
language, and extravagant in sentiment — in short, 
he had just such defects as we are accustomed to 
expect in " Blackwood," and which we get in 
plenty in this very article. 



Russia's Cesspool and Reservoir. 

" Siberia," says J. Y. Simpson in the "Scottish 
Geographical Magazine " for January, " is at once 
the reservoir of Russia and its cesspool." Mr. 
Simpson's paper on " The New Siberia " suggests 
that even the cesspool is being transformed into 
a fertilising agent. After describing the great 
railway, he goes on to speak of the fascination of 
Siberia for the emigrant. 

The Siberian Character. 

He has a pleasant account to give of the Siberian. 
He says: — 

The original Russian population of Siberia is mainly 
drawn from three sources— the Cossacks who first 
conquered the country, the exiles, political and criminal, 
and the great band of religious dissenters. Now, if we 
consider these three classes, bearing in mind with 
regard to the second that the unfit criminal e.ciles 
are weeded out by natural selection and do not sur- 
vive, we see that, as a whole, they consist of men 
and women who were in some way, intellectually or 
physically, more active or more earnest than their 
fellow-countrymen who remained in European Russia. 
The result is that to-d:iy the average Siberian is a 
more vigorous and intelligent man than the average 
Russian. He picks up a thing more quickly; his life 
is richer, brighter. There is, on the whole, a greater 
approximation to a normal state of existence in Siberia 
than in Russia; and the political exiles areXnot slow 
to see this, and take advantage of it by remaining on 
when their term is finished. 

These facts show for the hundredth time the fal- 
fcity of the Russophobe's traditional conception of 
Siberia. 



A More Progressive Canada. 

The development which has taken place since 
the accession of the Peacemaker is most strik- 
ing:— 

The new voluntary emigration movement really run* 
parallel with the progress of the Trans-Siberian railway 
scheme, for prior to its commencement certain restric- 
tions had been laid upon intending colonists. But with 
the new era the Government encouraged intending 
settlers in many ways. They were taken out by rail- 
way at rates corresponding to less than one shilling to 
the hundred miles. On their arrival in Siberia, they 
received in the western Governments grants of forty 
acres of land each, and were exempted from taxes for 
three years, while in many of the hardest cases tem- 
porary financial relief was granted to an extent not 
exceeding £10. 

In spite of the numbers that have returned home to 
European Russia, having spent their all upon a fruit- 
less errand, the fascination of the new country grows 
yearly stronger, and it is probably little exaggeration to 
say that, since Nicholas II. formally ascended the 
throne, an annual average of 200,000 people has gone 
out to claim a lot and portion in this new Land of 
Promise. An interesting comparison could be worked 
out between Siberia and Canada, which would show, 
amongst other things, that in the matter of actual 
colonisation, under conditions much less favourable, 
the Eastern Dominion has made relatively the greater 
progress, the difference in density of population between 
these two northern territories being merely fractional. 

" No Struggle for Existence." 
It is quite an idyllic picture which Mr. Simpson 
offers: — 

The official hand lies lighter; class distinctions have 
reached the vanishing point where there is practically 
only one large class, and where there never was serf- 
dom; orthodox ecclesiastical injunction has not the 
same binding force where heterodoxy peacefully thrives. 
Now, as in Russia, the people are essentially agricul- 
tural, only more so. As in Russia, the peasants live 
almost entirely in villages or hamlets, which are more 
simple, if possible, than those on the western side 
of the Urals. The soil in the southern zone of 
Siberia is often very rich; much of the provinces of 
Tobolsk and Tomsk is overlaid with the famous tcher- 
noziom (black earth). The virgin tracts are remark- 
ably prolific, and thirty to forty crops are often 
gathered in without any prolonged interval of repose. 
Further, there is a great abundance of five stock in 
peasant hands, especially of horses; cattle are not often 
used as beasts of burden or for purposes of draught, 
while breeding rarely ranks as an occupation. The 
transport of the interminable caravans of tea and 
other merchandise, travellers and convicts, always to 
be seen upon the great post trakt, has hitherto proved 
an assured source of revenue to the villagers along 
that route. And so there has never been a struggle 
for existence in the Siberian peasant's life; means of 
subsistence lie at his hand; beggary is unknown. In 
spite of this he is characterised by idleness, a certain 
obstinacy, and a lack of perseverance and energy, and 
he possesses these qualities, these failings, in a more 
marked degree than his western compatriots. 



How Women Workers Live. 

One of the most interesting articles in the " Nine- 
teenth Century " for March is that in which Miss 
Emily Hobhouse gives a summary of the census 
made by the Women's Industrial Council as to the 
ways of living and wishes of working women in 
London. The report is based on five hundred 



Review of Reviews, 
April 15, 1900. 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



5*5 



tforms filled up by women of fifteen different callings, 
residing in different parts of London and the 
suburbs, and deals mainly with the rent and ac- 
commodation which women of limited incomes 
are able to afford in London. 

Income and Rent. 
The average income of the five hundred women 
from whom particulars were obtained was £12S 
19s., out of which the average amount paid for rent 
was £28 4s. Of these women all but sixty-seven, 
who reside in boarding-houses, lived in lodgings, 
flats, or rooms. Professional incomes varied from 
£20 to a little over £100, and occasionally higher; 
but it is the addition of private means which raises 
the average to £128 19s. 21.7 per cent, of the 
average income is paid for rent. The total num- 
ber of rooms occupied by 367 occupants was 630, 
or a hundred short of two rooms apiece. 

How Women Live. 
The opinions evoked from the occupants of these 
rooms are by no meaDS flattering. Nearly all 
complain of dreariness, bad food, loneliness, ex- 
pense, and discomfort. The following are some 
•of their remarks: — 

Have tried several sets; indifferent or bad food ia 
the chief drawback. 

Too expensive, badly managed, food inferior, and 
too many restrictions. 

Chronic indigestion owing to regime. 

Petty restrictions and petticoat government. 

I have been in a flat without a servant and too ill for 
several days to dress and go and summon anyone to 
fetch a doctor or a friend. 

I want (writes another) the ordinary creature com- 
forts necessary to a woman who returns fagged and 
worked out. 

I have worked with many hundreds of women during 
the last fourteen years, and generally they have spoken 
of the extreme loneliness of living in lodgings. 

Those who lived in women's flats are almost 
unanimous in complaining of tyrannical restric- 
tions: — 

I left on account of high rent for very limited accom- 
modation; rules in ladies' chambers are often oppres- 
sive; little or no competition; and the shareholders re- 
ceive a high rate of interest — 5 per cent, in many cases. 

I am leaving because of the irritating rules. They 
should avoid treating tenants as a. cross between a 
pauper lunatic and a rebellious schoolgirl. 

Because of high rent, poor accommodation, diseom- 
■fort of public dining-room, and interference on the 
part of the officials. 

To Admit Men. 
A large number of the women were against 
chambers for women only, and declared that the 
ideal community would be a place where both men 
and women would be allowed to live. The fol- 
lowing are some of their opinions: — 

It is unwholesome to exclude men and make a sort 
of worldly nunnery of such a dwelling. 

The presence of men keeps up the standard of food. 

Certainly admit them; the cooking is better where 
men are allowed. 

A very necessary thing, and the only hope of keep- 
ing things up to the mark. 



This would ensure the food being of a better quality. 

I go now to a " mixed " boarding-bouse, because 
men insist on good and sufficient food, and that 
makes things better; women by themselves appear to 
dread strikes. 

The Ideal Women's Home. 

Miss Hobhouse sets forth her ideas as to the ideal 

woman's residence in the following passage: — 

A quiet spot in Bloomsbury— for Bloomsbury is the 
beloved, the chosen of working women— faibng that, 
perhaps Westminster; but in any case not far removed 
from the indefatigable and indispensable 'bus. Upon 
this spot a large building to contain accommodation for 
perhaps two hundred educated working people. It 
might contain about fifty single or combination rooms, 
a hundred sets of double rooms, and twenty-five sets 
of three and four rooms each. In the more commo- 
dious sets two friends might five together, or a 
brother and sister share a home. Aloft in the gables 
artists would pitch their easels, and musicians plead 
for sound-proof rooms in a far-off corner of the house. 
Below are the common rooms: a committee room, a 
library and newspaper room, a smoking-room for 
men and women, and— last, but not least— a large 
dining-hall, where no one should be bound to feed, 
but which, under the management of a representative 
committee, should be catered for to the satisfaction 
of the tenants. Attached would be a work-room or 
" mendery," where stockings with the large holes that 
are the despair of Saturday night, shirt-buttons hang- 
ing by a thread, ragged braids of skirts, and all the 
sundry evils that garments are heirs to, should find 
speedy attention at the hands of an experienced needle- 
woman. This practical suggestion is due to Miss Hitch- 
cock's long experience of London life, and is perhaps 
only excelled by Mrs. Percy Bunting's scheme for the 
service of such a household. Her idea is a contiguous 
building for the servants, a hostel, possibly connected with 
the main block, where those who serve the house should 
dwell. They should be engaged on a twofold principle— 
a certain number working for the management under 
the Warden, the rest engaged by ana responsible to in- 
dividual tenants. The advantages of such a plan will 
be at once obvious to those who are familiar with the 
working of the charwoman system. Living in proximity 
to their work, servants in the hostel could arrange for 
morning and evening service, and have free hours in 
the middle of the day. 



Value of the Colonial Forces. 

Lieutenant-General J. F. Owen, writing in the 
" Fortnightly Review" on " The Colonial Forces," 
gives some particulars as to their organisation and 
efficiency. The article is too detailed and covers 
too many subjects to be quoted at length here. It 
is interesting, however, to have General Owen's 
judgment— which is that while the men and spirit 
of the colonial forces are excellent, their arma- 
ment often leaves much to be desired. The stan- 
dard of shooting is not, on the whole, high. As to 
the composition of the forces, General Owen says: 

Mounted Infantry is the nature of force best suited 
to the conditions of life and climate of the colonies, 
excepting in the capital cities, a few large towns, and 
some portions, perhaps, of Canada, and it certainly is 
the most popular. The farther back one goes, into the 
agricultural districts, and then the pastoral, the bush, 
or backwoods, the material becomes in many ways bet- 
ter, but the difficulties of men together for organ- 
,,, drill, and rifle practici become much greater, 
orce should, however, be largely developed; so far 



5i6 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



it has not been brought up to the strength it should 
be, because it is more expensive than infantry, and partly 
because an academic necessity was supposed to exist 
for having a certain proportion of infantry (dismounted) 
in the total military forces of the colony. The value 
of mounted infantry was not, indeed, understood in the 
colonies better than elsewhere. In 1885 1 found not a 
single corps existing in South Australia; the Government 
agreed, however, to necessary alterations in their Act, 
and in a very short time 600 were raised, and, had 
funds been available, the number could have been in- 
creased without difficulty. The zeal of the officers and 
men is sometimes wonderful; many think nothing of 
riding forty to fifty miles (and back again) to the drill 
or shooting ground. The officers work hard, under 
great difficulties, to acquire the necessary rudiments 
of drill and tactics, and a newly-raised company very 
soon works into shape, though niceties cannot be much 
attended to; bad seasons, and the rather nomadic life 
many men lead, often affect, and sometimes break up, 
a corps, but with the available money it is easy to start 
another elsewhere. In view of South African ex- 
perience, the mounted infantry of the Colonies (es- 
pecially in Australia and South Africa) will certainly be 
increased. 



Make Rifle Practice a National Sport. 

" A Chance for the Public Schools " is the title 
which Mr. C. J. Cornish gives to his suggestion in 
the " National Review." He laments that the 
30,000 boys now in our public schools are expected 
to devote their spare time to every kind of physical 
exercise except the one most directly serviceable 
to their country. They must be expert in cricket, 
or football, or rowing, or racquet: but no parent 
minds if his boy is unable to hit a target at 500 
yards, or even to load a rifle. He urges that the 
practice of rifle-shooting should he taken up as 
vigorously as these other sports. A rifle range 
should be as indispensable as a cricket field. Every 
boy should be taught to shoot. Cadets in the 
school corps should be encouraged to spend much 
time at the butts. 

This would be a direct addition to the fighting 
forces of the country. " One-fourth of the thirty 
thousand sons of well-to-do parents leaving school 
at a military age, all equipped with the knowledge 
of how to use arms, and fair shots, will be seven 
thousand per annum— or about one half of the 
number annually passed into the Reserve from our 
regular army." Its indirect effect would be even 
greater. " The greater part of the universal ' de- 
Volution ' of the taste for athletic games, especi- 
ally for football, among the working-classes has 
been passed on from the public school boys." And 
the rage for rifle practice would pass on in the 
same way. " The public school boys would teach 
the local boys the use of the rifle as they did that of 
the football. They would be the leaders in vil- 
lage rifle clubs, and the taste would go deeper 
and wider yearly." 

" The Civil and Moral Benefits of Drill " are set 
out in a short article by the Rev. G. Sale Reaney 
in the " Nineteenth Century " for March. Mr. 



Reaney recommends that after leaving school all 
boys should be put through a course of compulsory 
drill. Compulsion, he points out, is a principle of 
all education, and there is no more reason why it 
should cease at fourteen than at any other age; and 
compulsory drill would serve as a useful antidote to 
many forms of sport which have become corrupted 
through professionalism and gambling. 



South African Climate and Contour.. 

The Rev. W. Gresswell, writing on " Some As- 
pects of the Boer War," gives some interesting par- 
ticulars as to the physical characteristics of the 
South African climate and terrain. He says: — 

The rainy season on the west of the Drakensberg, and 
along the central and western provinces of the Cape 
Colony, takes place in winter, exactly the reverse of 
Natal and the eastern coasts. It is said that the 
Boers waited for the rains before they made their de- 
scent upon Natal, and that their strategy was based 
upon a climatic consideration. This is probable enough, 
for the Boers do not carry about hay and forage, as 
their hardy Cape horses depend upon the grasses of the 
veldt. But the argument for the invasion of the eastern 
side does not apply with equal force to the central and 
western portions of South Africa. There has been 
the usual short spring round the Modder River, and 
the veldt gets easily burned up by the sun shining so 
long from unclouded skies. It is more than probable 
that the Boer horses in the vicinity of Kimberley have 
a great and growing difficulty in keeping themselves alive 
on the veldt. 

The impetuous character of the rivers of South 

Africa is as much artificial as natural: — 

In the first place, the forests of yellow wood and 
sneeze wood, and other useful trees, have been cut down 
recklessly, and the sides of the kloois exposed to the 
action of the storms, and all the reservoirs of moisture 
that deep foliaged woods harbour taken away at a blow. 
Nor has anything been planted for the use of future 
generations. Again, where large flocks of sheep and 
Angora goats have been driven backwards and forwards - 
to their kraals morning and evening, they have made 
little paths on the sloping terraces of the hillside, and 
literally trampled out the veldt. Every small path 
becomes a runnel of water, constantly widening and 
deepening, until it makes a deep " sluit," or water 
hole, under the action of the sudden rains. At the 
same time this hastens the process of surface draining. 
Add to this the practice of constantly burning off huge- 
areasof the veldt in order to get the young growth, and it 
will be seen how the hand of man has helped in the task 
of denudation. Before civilised man came to South 
Africa, this denudation took place speedily enough. 
The very look of the South African mountains, with 
their keen and serrated outlines, which the transparent 
atmosphere of the veldt does not soften, is a proof of 
this. The numberless " kopjes," or little heads, are a 
proof also. Centuries of storms have washed down the - 
tall berg into a " kop " or "kopje;" on all sides lie 
littered about in grand confusion great slabs, huge boul- 
ders, fragments worthy of Stonehenge, making avenue* 
of rocky paths, very often leading into subterraneous 
caves and passages. These kopjes are interspersed with 
rough and tangled growth, and thus provide an ideal 
place for ambush and defence. Not even modern artil- 
lery seems to have the devastating effect we should 
imagine against these fortresses. 

Mr. Gresswell ends his article by the familiar 
anti-Boer tirade. On the whole. I prefer his geo- 
graphy to his anthropology. 



Review of Reviews, 
April 15, 1900. 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



517 



A New Danger for Northern Africa. 

In a most interesting and most alarming article 
in the " Nineteenth Century " for March, Mr. T. R. 
Threlfall forecasts the coming of " Senussi and his 
Threatened Holy War " in a manner which might 
make the least alarmist take alarm. It is indeed 
the coming of a new Mahdi, no longer merely pre- 
datory and conquering, but one endowed with all 
the moral and intellectual forces which form the 
basis of a triumphing spiritual movement, a move- 
ment which may shake the Mohammedan States, 
not only of Africa, but even of Asia, to their utter- 
most foundations. 

Senussi and His Gospel. 
Senussi, indeed, has already come. It is only 
the annunciation of the prophet which we now 
await. Mohammed-es-Senussi is the son of an 
Algerian lawyer, himself a holy man, who before 
he died in 18L9 declared his son to be the true 
Mahdi, and announced a gospel which was to re- 
form the old Mohammedanism and set up another 
in its place. Where Senussism has taken root it 
has invariably been followed by better govern- 
ment, and reform in private life. The emissaries 
of the new faith reside in every port of the Medi- 
terranean and even possibly in the chief European 
capitals. They uphold morality, cultivate hospi- 
tality, demand obedience, and employ women as 
their agents, though refusing them admission to 
their order. The present Prophet and Mahdi, Sidi 
Senussi, is now fifty-five years of age, and has 
only once been seen by a European, the late Herr 
Nachtigal, who regarded him as immensely su- 
perior to the Dongalee Mahdi. During his long re- 
sidence at Jerabub he taught 2,000 students in the 
great convent, with the object of becoming mis- 
sionaries of his faith. He had an armoury and ar- 
senal, and immense numbers of camels. 

The Brewing of a Jehad. 

A few years ago he removed to the town of Joffo, 
in Kufra Oasis, 500 miles from the Nile, and still 
farther from the Mediterranean, where he teaches 
his disciples and perfects his armaments undis- 
turbed: — 

Satisfying in every respect the Mohammedan concep- 
tion of the true Mahdi (for not only is he stated to be 
directly descended from the great Mohammed's favour- 
ite wife, but he has one arm longer than another, 
as well as blue eyes, and the infallible mark between his 
shoulders), it is not surprising that he possesses a re- 
markable fascination for the imaginative and credulous 
races of North Africa. His colonies are found in Tri- 
poli, Tunis, Algeria, and Morocco. His great secret 
brotherhood extends over the mysterious oases which 
dot the Great Sahara, embraces the strange tribes of the 
Tibesti highlands, controls the robber Tuaracks, and 
takes in the great States of Wadai, Borku, and Bag- 
harmi,aswell as the numberless tnbes occupying the rich 
lands to the north of Lake Chad, and can even be 
found in Somaliland on the east, and Senegambia on 
the west. Nor is this all. Mohammedanism is making 



marvellous progress in the interior of Africa. It is 
crushing Paganism out. Against it the Christian pro- 
paganda is a myth. And wherever Mohammed 
goes there goes the Senussi brotherhood. It is a beacon 
on the top of a hill waiting for the master hand to 
apply the spark. It is obviously diliicult to give an 
approximate idea of the number of Senu3si's affiliated 
members, inasmuch as that is alone known to the Mahdi 
and his lieutenants. In 1883, however, M. Duveyrier esti- 
mated them at three millions; since then the movement 
has grown enormously, so that there are now probably 
nine millions. This, however, only represents a fraction 
of the force which will be available when Senussi pro- 
claims the Jehad. As those connected with powerful 
organisations well know, the moral force of the asso- 
ciated members often represents more than treble the 
total membership. 

Statesman Now — Future Conqueror. 

Sidi Senussi has given more than one indication 

of statesmanship. He has freed large numbers of 

slaves and educated them, with the result that 

every slave becomes an active propagandist, and 

the whole of Wadai has come under his influence. 

He possesses many of the qualifications of a great 

leader; and nothing is so certain as that when he 

gives the word, he will set Africa — and it may be 

Arabia, if not India — in a flame. The time, Mr. 

Threlfall thinks, has now come; and he regards 

the revolt of the Soudanese troops at Omdurman 

as the first signal of the coming storm: — 

Failing a war between France and England, it is 
obvious that the most favourable time for Senussi to 
act would be when one of the two Powers named 
is embarrassed by a great war, and when it would 
consequently be unable to put an effective force in the 
field against him. That favourable moment has at last 
come. Never since the Crimean War has England been 
in such a parlous plight. With a war in South Africa 
on our hands, the extent and duration of which no man 
can foresee; devoid of an available army, if complica- 
tions arise elsewhere; with weakened garrisons in India 
to control millions of Mohammedans, with a hostile 
Europe encouraging our enemies, with African barbar- 
ism sitting on the fence and ready to hurl itself upon 
us at the signs of assured defeat; and, most serious 
danger of all, with a Government in power which ap- 
pears to be incapable of appreciating the gravity of the 
situation and shrinks from adopting those means by 
which alone the Empire can be safeguarded — surely 
Senussi could not wish for a more opportune moment to 
launch his thunderbolt. 

The Dervishes of the Future. 

Senussi is well aware of all this. In Algeria, 

Morocco, Egypt, in Tunis and in Europe, his secret 

agents act as so many eyes and ears with which he 

see; and hears what is passing amongst civilised 

people. There is even reason to believe that his 

fol'owers have acquired from the blactc races of 

Africa the secret of brain telegraphy, uy which 

they send messages over vast distances, and have 

information concerning recent battles in South 

Africa immediatelj after they took place - — 

As a fighting element Senussi's followers will be in- 
finitely superior to the wild and ill-armed tribesmen our 
troops encountered at Abu Klea, Metammah, and Om- 
durman. Many of them will |io--e<< the improved 
weapons which hnve been accumulating for years at 
Jeraibiib and Joffo. As to their possession of artil- 
lery nothing is known, but their remarkable mobility, 
their wonderful powers of endurance, their, marvellous 



5i8 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



knowledge of this great inhospitable region, coupled 
with the fact that they can always retreat into the 
desert whither civilised troops cannot follow, are advan- 
tages of Which they are thoroughly cognizant. li we 
multiply by a hundred-fold the long, exhausting, and 
costly conquest of Algeria by the French, we may obtain 
some idea of what a holy war proclaimed by Senussi will 
mean. 

The United States as Coloniser. 

Under this title the " North American Review " 
for February publishes three articles dealing with 
various aspects of the problem raised by the issue 
of the war with Spain. 

In the Philippines. 

Brigadier-General Anderson, who took part in 
the early expedition against Manila, gives a de- 
tailed account of the operations which led to the 
annexation of the island, and the revolt of the Fili- 
pinos. From his article, Aguinaldo was willing 
to make any terms with the Americans short of 
agreeing to their annexation. The immediate 
cause of the dispute was the refusal of the Ameri- 
can commander to leave the Filipino army in a 
good strategical position on the contingency of 
peace being made with Spain without a guarantee 
of their independence. The American soldiers, 
fays General Anderson, looted the natives, and 
called them " niggers," and thus both commanders 
and men did their best to exasperate the islanders. 
General Anderson concludes his article as follows: 

As to our ability to establish a stable government in 
the Philippines, we have certain things in our favour. 
The people of those islands have no other traditional 
allegiance and no other governmental traditions. They 
wish to break all connection between Church and State, 
and to try a representative form of government. As 
Mabini says in his so-called " appeal ' to the people of 
the United States, they look upon our government as the 
best example of republican government. The dangerous 
element is a spirit of faction begotten of generations of 
oppression and misrule, yet education and good govern- 
ment may in time regenerate a race not without good 
qualities and not without ambition. 

In Cuba. 

Major J. E. Runcie, writing on " American Mis- 
government of Cuba," complains that the result 
of leaving the administration of the island so much 
in the hands of the Cubans, and of restoring the 
Spanish law, has been to perpetuate the abuses of 
Spanish rule. He says: — 

Another of the grievous complaints which the Cubans 
made against Spain was that the whole government of 
the island, even in its smallest details, was centralised 
at Havanna. It has remained for the Cuban ministers 
of an American Governor to prove that the Spaniards 
were mere amateurs in the art of centralising power. 
As soon as the secretaries at Havanna became the real 
masters of the island, they began a system of appoint- 
ments and removals in all the offices, from the highest 
judicial and administrative posts down to the third and 
fourth assistant mayors of little hamlets in the remote 
wilderness. Every one of these appointments wis 
made with due consideration of its effect on the politi- 
cal future of the small junta in control. Many of these 
appointments were made in spite of the earnest and 



repeated protests of the American generals in com- 
mand of subordinate departments, but the generals soon 
learned that they too were practically subject to the 
secretaries, and that a demonstration of the fact that a 
candidate for any important position was unfitted for it 
by personal character, attainments, antecedents or for 
any other reason, had no weight with the American 
Governor as against the recommendation of a Cuban 
secretary. Appointments were confined almost ex- 
clusively to those who had served in the Cuban army. 
That force never represented ten per cent, of the Cuban 
people, and its general character was such that high 
rank or long service in it might better be regarded 
as disqualifications for office rather than as claims to 
consideration. As a body, it is avowedly hostile to 
the continuance of the American occupation, even for a 
day, and equally hostile to the exertion of any American 
influence in determining the final settlement and recon- 
struction of the country. Yet from this body have 
been appointed judges of all grades, civil governors m 
every province, the mayors and other municipal officers 
in all cities and tow'ns-^almost every Cuban office- 
holder, in short, every one of whom is dependent for 
his continuance in office on the secretaries who gave 
it to him. The result is a political machine which 
covers the entire island, which has been constructed 
under cover of American authority, but is bitterly hos- 
tile to every American influence, and the aim of 
which is to obstruct and to defeat, if possible, the very 
purposes for which the Americans intervened and ex- 
pelled Spain from Cuba. 

Is the Game Worth the Candle? 

Mr. Edward Atkinson contributes the third 
paper, which is entitled "Eastern Commerce; 
What is It Worth?" He does not believe for a 
moment that trade follows the flag. But even 
if it did, the profit would by no means balance 
the loss. Apart from the necessary war ex- 
penses, America has spent 500,000,000 dollars in 
military aggression, of which there is no prospect 
of getting a penny back. Mr. Atkinson says: — 

I would by no means undervalue the development 
of Eastern commerce. It is of importance even at its 
present measure. We are but witnessing the beginning 
of the process of development of Asia, Africa, and South 
America by the railway and steamship. With that 
development, commerce will increase by leaps and 
bounds, provided it is not interrupted by war and by 
criminal aggression. If we only stand and wait, that 
commerce is at our feet. It must come to us in very 
large measure, because we hold the paramount control 
of the iron and steel products and manufactures of the 
world, and these give us the control of shipping and 
commerce whenever we choose to free the natural course 
of trade from obstructive taxes and repeal our obsolete 
navigation laws, which only keep our flag from the sea. 
Every step that we take in criminal aggression, or in 
warfare of any kind, for the control of commerce only 
adds to our burden, destroys the power of those with 
whom we would trade to buy our goods, while working 
a possible profit to the few promoters and contractors 
who desire to get the first plunder out of ignorant people 
in the construction of their railways, but at the cost 
of the mass of the taxpayers of this country. 

"A fool and his money are soon parted." The typical 
Uncle Sam is held in international repute to be rather 
shrewd and to comprehend his own interest, and yet 
he is now a most conspicuous example of that aphorism. 
How other nations must laugh in their sleeves while 
witnessing what a fool Uncle Sam is malting of himself 
at the present time, in the matter of military aggression 
under the pretext of expansion of commerce. Uncle 
Sam may be fooled for a short time by specious and 
delusive arguments based on pretexts of piety, profits 
and patriotism. He cannot be long misled by false pre- 
tences, and he will presently take measures to expose 
them and to stop the course of criminal aggression. 



Review of Reviews, 
Ap&il 15, 1900. 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



5*9 



'* The Bicycle and Crime." 

Professor Lombroso, whose expert study of crime 
is always up to date, brings the bicycle within his 
range in the " Pall Mall Magazine." He de- 
clares: — 

No modern mechanism has assumed the extraordinary 
importance of the bicycle, either as a cause or as an 
instrument of crime. So marked is this that, whereas 
it used to be the somewhat intemperate fashion to seek 
in woman the mainspring of every masculine offence, — 
" cherchez la femme," — we might now say with perhaps 
less exaggeration " cherchez la bicyclette " in the 
majority of offences committed by young men, and, in 
Italy at all events, by young men of good social stand- 
ing. This may be explained in many ways. First 
there is the enormously popular use of the bicycle, not 
only as a vehicle of conveyance and pleasure, but as a 
means of gain both by " record " riding and by sale. 
Then there is the increased intercourse among men, 
which, as I have pointed out in my " Delinquent Man," 
always augments vice. 

Cyclists as Highwaymen. 
Then follows a catalogue of criminal propen- 
sities roused by the wheel: — 

It is certain that many muscular young men, con- 
sumed with vanity, desire to make their way in the 
world rapidly. The longing to surpass others without 
possessing any special mental qualification for so doing 
is one of the strongest tendencies of our times; and it 
is most marked amongst youths who, not being rich 
enough to buy a costly bicycle which shall enable them 
to " break the record." are moved to commit theft, 
perhaps even highway robbery involving homicide, to 
gain their end. . . . For the most part these high- 
waymen are very young, very alert, enthusiastic cyclists, 
and of good social standing. 

The British Philistine will assume the Pharisee as 
lie reads " of good social standing," and be grateful 
that England is not as Italy. 

" The Finest of all Remedies" for Alcoholism. 

The learned Professor, however, does not dismiss 

it as solely an instrument or occasion of crime. 

He says: — 

It must be admitted that if the bicycle has aug- 
mented the causes and means of crime, it has increased 
the well-being and civilising tendencies of life; lessening 
the isolation of the small centres and bringing the 
country within a few minutes' distance of the large 
centres. In the elections it was a powerful ally of those 
political parties which were most advanced and best able 
to avail themselves of modern means of contest. . . . 
The healthier men are, the better they are; and in 
so far as the bicycle makes for health it directly 
diminishes the cause of crime. A remedy is everywhere 
being vainly sought for alcoholism, a disease which is 
based in an ever-increasing craving for cerebral ex- 
citement. Now, it seems to me that a passion for cycling, 
which is incompatible with the degrading use of alcohol 
so common amongst the lower classes, offers the finest 
of all remedies for this terrible evil. In our rides along 
the country roads most frequented by cyclists, my son 
and I have observed that the public-houses have quite 
changed their character, and now sell all sorts of mineral 
waters, syrups and coffee. As a mental specialist I 
have seen the gravest forms of neurasthenia and melan- 
cholia yield before this marvellous machine, and I am 
sure that your great English specialists will bear me 
out. A satirical forecast describes the cyclo-anthropos 
of the twentieth century as a doubled-up hunchback 
with atrophic arms. For my part. I venture to predict 
that the real cyclo-anthropos of the twentieth century 



will suffer less from his nerves, and will be more mus- 
cular than the man of the nineteenth century. And 
certainly for one evil which the bicycle now pro- 
vokes, it will yield us a hundred benefits in time to come. 



I 



The Puzzles of Astronomy. 

Professor Simon Newcomb, in the March " Wind- 
sor," shows very impressively how great even to 
keen-eyed modern astronomical science are the 
unsolved problems of the stars. Here are some 
examples: — 

Whither Are the Stars Travelling? 

The greatest fact which modern science has brought 
to light is that our whole solar system, including the 
sun, with all its planets, is on a journey toward the 
constellation Lyra. During our whole lives, in all 

robability during the whole of human history, we 
ave been flying unceasingly toward this beautiful con- 
stellation with a speed to which no motion on earth can 
compare. The speed has recently been determined 
with a fair degree of certainty, though not with entire 
exactness; it is about ten miles a second, and there- 
fore not far from three hundred millions of miles a year. 
But whatever it may be, it is unceasing and unchanging, 
for us mortals eternal. . We are nearer the constellation 
now than we were ten years ago by thousands of mil- 
lions of miles, and every future generation of our race 
will be nearer than its predecessor by thousands of mil- 
lions of miles. 

When, where, and how, if ever, did this journey 
begin? when, where, and how, if ever, will it end? 
This is the greatest of the unsolved problems of 
astronomy. An astronomer who should watch the 
heavens for ten thousand years might gather some 
faint suggestion of an answer, or he might not. 

The unsolved problem of the motion of our sun is 
only one branch of a yet more stupendous one: What 
mean the motions of the stars? how did they begin, and 
how, if ever, will they end? So far as we can yet see, 
each star is going straight ahead on its own journey, 
without regard to its neighbours, if other stars can be 
so called. Is each describing some vast orbit which, 
though looking like a straight line during the short 
period of our observation, will really be seen to curve 
after ten thousand or a hundred thousand years, or will 
it go on for ever? If the laws of motion are true for 
all space and all time, as we are forced to believe, then 
each moving star will go on in an unbending line for 
ever unless hindered by the attraction of other stars. 
If they go on thus, they must, after countless years, 
scatter in all directions, so that the inhabitants of 
each shall see only a black, starless sky. 

How Big is the Universe? 

Another unsolved problem among the greatest winch 
present themselves to the astronomer is that of the 
size of the universe of stars. We know that several 
thousand of these bodies are visible to the naked eye; 
nc derate telescopes show us millions: our giant tele- 
scopes of the present time, when used as cameras to 
photograph the heavens, show a number pas! ount, per- 
haps a hundred millions. Are all these stars only those 
few which happen to be near us in a universe ex- 
tending out without end, or Jo they form a collection of 
stars outside of which is empty, infinite space? In 
other words, lias the universe a boundary': Taken in 
its wildest scope this question must always remain un- 
answered by us mortals, because, even if we should dis- 
cover a boundary within which all the stars and chlflfi 
we ever can know are contained, and outside ol which 
is empty space, si ill we could m e ilia, 

space is empty out to an infinite distance. Far outside 
of what we call the universe might still exist other 
universes which we can never see. 



5 2 o 



The Review of Reviews. 



x\pril 15, 1900. 



It is a great encouragement to the astronomer that, 
although he cannot yet set any exact boundary to this 
universe of ours, lie is gathering faint indications that 
it has a boundary, which his successors not many genera- 
tions hence may locate so that the astronomer shall 
include creation itself within his mental grasp. It 
can be shown mathematically that an infinitely extended 
system of stars would till the heavens with a blaze of 
light like that of the noonday sun. As no such effect 
is produced, it may be concluded that the universe has 
a boundary. But this does not enable us to locate 
the boundary, nor to say how many stars may lie out- 
side the farthest stretches of telescopic vision. Yet 
by patient research we are slowly throwing light on 
these points and reaching inferences which, not many 
years ago, would have seemed for ever beyond cur 
powers. 

The Puzzle of the Milky Way. 

Everyone now knows that the Milky Way, that girdle 
ot light which spans the evening sky, is formed 01 
clouds of stars too minute to be seen by the unaided 
vision. It seems to form the base on which the 
universe is built and to bind all the stars into a system. 
It comprises by far the larger number of stars that the 
telescope has shown to exist. Those we see with the 
naked eye are almost equally scattered over the sky. 
But the number which the telescope shows us become 
more and more condensed in the Milky Way as tele- 
scope power is increased. The number of new stars 
brought out with our greatest power is vastly 
greater in the Milky Way than the rest of the sky, so 
that the former contains a great majority of the stars. 
What is yet more curious, spectroscopic research has 
shown that a particular kind of stars, those formed 
of heated gas, are yet more condensed in the central 
circle of this band; if they were visible to the naked 
eyes, we should see them encircling the heavens as 
a narrow girdle forming perhaps the base of our whole 
system of stars. This arrangement of the gaseous or 
vaporous stars is one of the most singular facts that 
modern research has brought to light. It sjems to 
show that these particular stars form a system of their 
own, but how such a thing can be we are still unable to 
see. 

The question of the form and extent of the Milky 
Waythusbecomesthecentraloneof stellar astronomy. Sir 
William Herschel began by trying to sound its depths. 
At one time he thought he had succeeded; but before 
he died he saw that they were unfathomable with 
his most powerful telescopes. Even to-day he would 
be a bold astronomer who would profess to say with 
certainty whether the smallest stars we can photo- 
graph are at the boundary of the system. Before we 
decide this point we must have some idea of the form 
and distance of the cloud-like masses of stars which 
form our great celestial gird'e. A most curious fact is 
that our solar system seems to be in the centre of this 
galactic universe, because the Milky Way divides the 
heavens into two^ equal parts, and seems equally broad 
at all points. Were we looking at such a girdle as this 
from one side or the other, this appearance would not 
be presented. 

Where Does Light Go? 

What becomes of the great flood of heat and light 
which the sun and stars radiate into empty space with 
a velocity of 180,000 miles a second? Only a very small 
fraction of it can be received by the planets or by other 
stars, because these are mere points compared with 
their distance from us. Taking the teaching of our 
science just as it stands, we should say that all this heat 
continues to move on through infinite space for ever. 
In a few thousand years it reaches the probable confines 
of our great universe. But we know no reason why it 
should stop there. During the hundreds of millions 
of years since all our stars began to shine, has the first 
ray of light and heat kept on through space at the rate 
of 180,000 miles a second, and will it continue to go on 
for ages to come? If so, think of its distance now, 
and think of its still going on, to be for ever wasted! 
Rather say that the problem, What becomes of it? 
is as yet unsolved. 



The Puzzle of the Sun. 

What is the sun? When we say that it is a very hot 
globe, more than a million times as large as the earth, 
and hotter than any furnace that man can make, so that 
literally " the elements melt with fervent heat " even 
at its surface, while inside they are all vaporised, we 
have told the most that we know as to what the sun 
really is. Of course we know a great deal about the 
spots, the rotation of the sun on its axis, the materials 
of which it is composed, and how its surroundings look 
during a total eclipse. But all this does not answer our 
question. There are several mysteries which ingenious 
men have tried to explain, but they cannot prove their 
explanations to be correct. One is the cause and nature 
of the spots. Another is that the shining surface of the 
sun, the "photosphere," as it is technically called, seems- 
so calm and quiet while forces are acting within it of 
a magnitude quite beyond our conception. Flames in 
which our earth and everything on it would be en- 
gulfed like a boy's marble in a Dlacksmith's forge are 
continually shooting up to a height of tens of thousands 
of miles. One would suppose that internal forces 
capable of doing this would break the surface up into 
billows of fire a thousand miles high; but we see nothing 
of the kind. The surface of the sun seems almost as 
placid as a lake. 

Yet another mystery is the corona of the sun. This 
is something we should never have known to exist 
if the sun were not sometimes totally eclipsed by the 
dark body of the moon. On these rare occasions the 
sun is seen to be surrounded by a halo of soft white light, 
sending out rays in various directions to great distances. 
This halo is called the corona, and has been most in- 
dustriously studied and photographed during nearly 
every total eclipse for thirty years. Thus we have 
learned much about how it looks and what its shape 
is. It has a fibrous, woolly structure, a little like the 
loose end of a much worn hempen rope. A certain re- 
semblance has been seen between the form of these 
seeming fibres and that of the lines in which iron 
filings arrange themselves when sprinkled on a paper 
over a magnet. It has hence been inferred that the 
sun has magnetic properties, a conclusion which, in 
a general way, is supported by many other facts. Yet 
the corona itself remains no less an unexplained pheno- 
menon. 



Stories from the Magazines. 

The Connaught Rangers form the theme of Mr. 
Fletcher Robinson's paper in "Cassell's" for March. 
He quotes from an old army surgeon several good 
storie? about members of this " famous regiment." 

Soldier v. Politician. 
Here is one about a Unionist friend of his stand- 
ing for an Ulster constituency: — 

One day he was addressing a crowd — from a cart. 
They seemed against him to a man, and the worst of 
'em all was a great red-headed spalpeen with a black- 
thorn like a club. A sort of ringleader he seemed, 
and each time he waved his stick, faith they yelled till 
me friend couldn't hear himself speak — nor could any- 
one else, for that matter. Presently me friend, in the 
course of his oration, points to a mighty fine poster his- 
agent had stuck up, wherein three soldiers were drawn 
standing, hand in hand, round the Union Jack, and he 
says, " What have we here, me hoys? A Guardsman 
and a Highlander and a Connaught Ranger, best of all, 
rallying round the ould flag." 

"An' who the blazes are the Connaught Rangers?" 
holloas a fellow in the crowd with a jeering laugh. 
With that the red-head man pushes his way to where 
the inquiring fellow stood, and downed him with his 
stick in a twinkling. Then there was a row, and in 
sailed the constabulary, and there was an end to the 



Review of Reviews. 
Apbil 15, 1900. 



Leading Articles in the Reviews. 



5 21 



meeting. As me friend was driving off he saw the red- 
headed man by the road, and pulled up. 

" You don't like me politics, he says; " why did you 
down the man that interrupted me?" 

" Faith, sor," he answers, " I'm a resarve man of the 
Connaught Rangers meself. An' do ye think I'd let 
a blagyard like him say aught agin' the honour of the 
ould regiment?" 

A Clever Piece of Impudence. 

An officer in the regiment, when quartered in 
Edinburgh, found certain disciplinary measures 
the reverse of effective: — 

There had been a deal of drunkenness and disorder 
amongst his men, and he was determined to stop it. 
So one early morning parade he ordered an old offen- 
der, who had been out all night, to be marched across 
the regiment's front in his muddy tunic and torn 
trousers, as an awful warning. When the prisoner 
arrived at the left flank, he turned to the colonel, 
saluted him and said, just as if he had been some swell 
inspecting them, " Thank ye, Colonel; faith, it's one av 
the foinest regiments I've ever seen. Ye may dismiss 
them!" 

Soapy Smith and the Parson. 

Under the heading of "Truth Strange as Fic- 
tion," Mr. C. Lang Neil tells in the " Windsor " for 
March some stories about desperadoes on the 
American side of the Klondyke frontier, the chief 
of whom was a saloon-keeper known as " Soapy 
Smith," guilty of most crimes of violence and 
fraud. Here is one incident in his career: — 

A clergyman came one day to Soapy and solicited a 
subscription for the local hospital. At first the scamp 
was dumbstruck at the mere idea of being asked to help 
in anything good or respectable. The parson proceeded 
a trifle nervously to point out what a great help his 
name at the head of the list would be, seeing that no 
one for very shame could refuse to give if even Soapy 
Smith had contributed. 

" Well," after an instant's thought, said Soapy, " I 
guess I'll do you the turn for once. Put me down for 
fifty dollars, and when you've been round, come back 
and tell me how much good it'a done you." 

Delighted beyond measure at his unexpected success, 
the minister departed, and did a hard but successful 
day's work amongst the returned miners and others. 
Faithful to his word he came back to tell Soapy of his 
good fortune. 

"Well, what luck, parson?" queried Soapy. 

" Six thousand dollars. Not a bad day's work, thanks 
to you, eh?" 

" No, not so bad; just hand it over." And quick 
as lightning Soapy's revolver covered the head of the 
man of peace. 

This time it was the parson's turn to be dumbstruck. 
There was no alternative; and all his pleadings and ex- 
postulation proving useless, the six thousand dollars 
were transferred to Soapy's pockets. 

" Good day. You're the best collector I ever had, 
parson," said the cool villain, as very shamefacedly 
the preacher passed out of the doorway, a sadder, and 
possibly a wiser, man. 

Soapy was shot dead at a meeting of citizens who 
could stand his enormities no longer, and his com- 
rades sent to penal servitude. 

A Few of a Bishop's Stories. 
The last of the selections from the notebooks of 
Bishop Walsham How appear in the March num- 
ber of the " Sunday Magazine." Two or three 
may be cited here: — 



A Wellington paper, commenting severely on the sup- 
posed ritualistic practices at Welsh Hampton, spoke of 
the vicar ,is " practising the most unblushing celibacy." 

A verger was showing a lady over a church when she 
asked him if the vicar was a married man. " No, 
ma'am," he answered, "he's a ehalyl 

(anon ]!- was on a voyage to Egvpt in a Ciinard 

steamer, and on Sunday, in the Bay of Biscay, he under- 
took to hold a service. He read one of the sentences, 
and said, " De.uly beloved brethren, the Scripture 
moveth us in sundry places," when he had to bolt and 
collapse. He told me he thought this a record ser- 
vice for brevity. 

At Kensington parish church one of the curates asked 
for the prayers of the congregation for " a family cross- 
ing the Atlantic, and other sick persons." 

The rector of Thornhill, near Dewsbury, on one oc- 
casion coidd not get the woman to say " obey " in 
the marriage service, and he repeated the word with 
a strong stress on each syllable, saying, " You must say 
O-bey." Whereupon the man interfered and said, 
"Never mind; go on, parson. I'll mak' her say 'O 
by and by." 

An Enfant Terrible of an Interviewer. 
Harry Furniss, in the March " Windsor," tells 
this story in his Canadian sketches: — 

Hamilton is enterprising in more things than in trade. 
What do you think of this for ambitious journalism? 
This very amusing incident is related by Lady Aberdeen: 

"The day after we arrived a boy of about 13 came 
up to Lord Aberdeen as he was walking in the grounds, 
and said — 

'* ' Is Lord Haddo at home?' 

' 'Well, no, he is not: but I am his father. What do 
you want with him?' 

" 'Well, I want to interview him, and ask him what 
his Lordship thought of our city; and I wanted to put 
the interview in my father's paper.' 

" Lord Aberdeen was rather startled, in spite of hav- 
ing become somewhat familiarised to the custom of 'in- 
terviewing ' which prevails universally on the other side 
of the water, by means of which public men make 
known their views. He had scarcely, however, ex- 
pected his eleven-year-old son to be called upon to give 
his opinions as yet, and he tried to explain to the youth- 
ful journalist that in the Old Country boys were not 
expected to air their views so soon. But our young 
friend was not so easily baffled. He still persisted in 
asking ' If Lord Haddo had made arrangements to in- 
spect the public buildings of the city, and especially if 
he had visited the ' Mountain,' and what he thought of 
that?' " 



The Secret of Mr. Moody's Success. 

By Dr. Lyman Abbott. 

In a very thoughtful and suggestive paper in the 
"North American Review" for February. Dr. Ly- 
man Abbott discusses the secret of Mr. Moody's 
success. Tt will interest many High Churchmen 
to hear that Dr. Abbott, who is a Congregationalist, 
and who at one time occupied Henry Ward 
Beechor's pulpit, thinks that Mr. Moody's Reviva- 
lism succeeded because of elements which it pos- 
sessed in common with the Sacerdotal movement 
in Great Britain. As most of the followers of Mr. 
Moody regard Ritualists as only one degree less 
worthy of condemnation than the Papists, it may 
do them good to read Dr. Abbott's tribute to men 
with whom he is in no ecclesiastical or theological 
agreement. 



The Review of Reviews, 



April 15, 1900. 



A Tribute to the High Church Movement. 

Dr. Abbott says: — 

It is impossible for any student of current events to 
doubt that the High Church party in the Anglican 
Church is really exerting a notable spiritual influence 
in England; that it is attracting in many cases large 
congregations to before sparsely attended churches; 
that it is felt as a power in many hearts and homes. 
The essential spirit which characterises the High Church 
party is its sacerdotal spirit, its exaltation of the priest- 
hood and the altar, its conversion of the memorial 
supper into a bloodless sacrifice of the mass, and its 
use of priesthood, altar, and mass to emphasise the 
right of the priest to declare authoritatively the absolu- 
tion and remission of sins. It is because the High 
Church priesthood assume power on earth to forgive 
sins, and so to relieve men and women of the first of 
the two burdens of which I have spoken, that it has its 
power over the hearts of its adherents. So long as 
men and women feel the burden of the irreparable 
past, so long they will come to that Church, and that 
alone, which, declares with authority that the past is 
forgiven; and they will not always be critical in in- 
quiring whether all the grounds on which that authority 
is claimed can stand historical investigation. 

Mr. Moody and the Forgiveness of Sins. 

Dr. Abbott then points out that although Mr. 

Moody utterly repudiated all sacerdotalism, and 

was an out-and-out Evangelical, in one respect he 

ministered just as the priest to the same great need 

of the human heart: — 

Never did a High Church priest of the Anglican 
Church believe more profoundly that to him bad been 
given authority to promise the absolution and remission 
of sins, than did Mr. Moody believe that he possessed 
such authority. Rarely, if ever, did priest, Anglican 
or Catholic, hear more vital confessions or pronounce 
absolution with greater assurance. The High Church- 
man thinks that he derives such power through a long 
ecclesiastical line; Mr. Moody believed that he derived 
it through the declarations of the Bible; but both 
in the last analysis obtained it by their faith in " one 
Lord Jesus Christ, . . . Who for us men and for 
our salvation came down from Heaven." The one no 
less than the other spoke, or claimed to speak, by 
authority; both derived their authority from the same 
great historic fact; and the attractive power which 
drew unnumbered thousands to the preaching of Mr. 
Moody was in its essence the same as that which draws 
unnumbered thousands to the altar and the Eucharist. 

A Warning to Liberal Christians. 

Dr. Lyman Abbott concludes his remarkable 

paper with the following warning: — 

I am sure that if we of the so-called liberal faith 
hope to retain in these more liberal days the attractive 
power of the Church, we can do it only by holding fast 
to the great historic facts of the birth, life, passion 
and death of Jesus Christ essentially as they are narrated 
fn the Four Gospels, and to the great spiritual fact that 
in the God Whom He has declared to us there is abun- 
dant forgiveness for all the past, and abundant life 
for all the future; and we must declare this, not as 
a theological opinion, to be defended by philosophical 
arguments as a rational hypothesis, but as an assured 
fact, historically certified by the life and death of 
Jesus Christ and confirmed out of I the mouth of many 
witnesses by the experience of Christ's disciples and 
followers in all Churches and in every age. If we fail 
to do this, men will desert our ministry for Romanism, 
Anglicanism and Evangelism, or, in despair of spiritua 
life in any quarter, will desert all that ministers to 
the higher life, and live a wholly material life, alternat- 
ing between restless, unsatisfied desire and stolid self- 
content. And the fault and the folly will be our9 more 
even than theirs. 



Mr. Carnegie's Profits. 

The " N.Y. Independent " gives an account of 
the profits which Mr. Carnegie draws from his 
great iron-works that reads like a fairy tale: — 

Mr. Carnegie controls the Carnegie Steel Company by 
owning 5SJ per cent, of its capital stock. He has 
been very successful not only by reason of his own 
knowledge of the iron and steel industry, and his rare 
business ability, but also because he has selected his 
partners and assistants with excellent judgment. He 
lias provided for the dismissal of these partners or 
assistants whenever they cease to be in harmony with 
him and his business projects. Thus, he caused the 
resignation of Mr. Frick for reasons which appear to 
be associated with the failure of Mr. Frick and other 
capitalists to carry out a project for the purchase 
of his interests. Mr. Carnegie was to receive £20,000,000 
in 5 per cent, gold bonds and about £12,000,000 in 
cash; and the company was to be reorganised on the 
basis of a very large capitalisation. The condition 
of the promoters' money market was not sufficiently 
favourable, and the £200,000 paid to Mr. Carnegie for 
a ninety days' option was forfeited to him. Since 
that time the relations between Mr. Carnegie and Mr. 
Frick appear to have been strained. Mr. Frick was 
required to resign in December. He owned 6 per 
cent, of the stock, and he complains that Mr. Carnegie 
has undertaken to compel him, under the terms of an 
old agreement, to sell his share for £1,200,000, which, 
he asserts, is about one-third of its value. 

To show what its value really is he discloses the 
fact that the company's net profits last year were 
£4,200,000, although much of its work was done under 
contracts based upon the low prices of the end of 
1898 and the beginning of 1899, and that Mr. Carnegie's 
estimate of this year's profits is £8,000,000, his own 
being £8,500,000. Mr. Carnegie, he says, values the 
company and its property at not less than £50,000,000, 
and believes that in prosperous times it can be sold in 
the London market for £100,000,000. Undoubtedly 
Mr. Frick will obtain justice in the courts. By Mr. 
Carnegie's action he has not been thrown upon a cold 
world without employment, and deprived of the com- 
forts of life. With a'fortime of not less than £2,000,000 
he can keep the wolf from the door. 

This is the largest company of its kind in the world. 
Its capital stock of only £5,000,000 does not adequately 
represent the value of its plant. Its sales of finished 
material are enormous. Who knows whether the profit 
of £4,200,000 was 10, or 15, or 20 per cent, of the value 
of goods sold? The remarks of one journal warrant 
the inference that, in its opinion, the company should 
have been content with a profit of 10 per cent, on 
£5,000,000, or £500,000 instead of £4,200,000. That 
journal says that the way to make such companies 
content with 10 per cent, profits or dividends is " to take 
off the protective tariff duties that enable them to 
keep up prices," because " competition from abroad is 
effectually shut out by the tariff." 



How the Queen Feels about the War. 

" The Queen and Her Soldiers " is the subject of 

a paper in the " Lady's Realm." The writer states 

that " the tension at which Her Majesty has lived 

during the past months has been very great": — 

Princess Beatrice has found it necessary to caution 
family visitors against introducing war topics in the 
Queen's presence, especially engagements where there 
has been great loss of life, for although Her Majesty 
regards this war as a just one, and long usage to affairs 
of public import has strengthened the Queen's natural 
courage and resolve, the woman in her is very strong, 
and feels keenly the suffering entailed by war upon her 
brave soldiers. 



Review of Revtews, 
April 15, 1900. 



5 2 3 



THE REVIEWS REVIEWED. 



The Century Magazine. 

In the March " Century " there is a very readable 
article by Dr. Frederick A. Cook, of the Belgian 
antarctic expedition, on " The Giant Indians of 
Tierra del Fuego." There are many tribes of the 
Indians about the Straits of Magellan. Dr. Cook 
describes the Onas, who have thus far evaded all 
efforts at civilisation, and have to the present 
time, and with good reason, mistrusted white men. 
The most of these utter savages are on the main 
island of Tierra del Fuego. The Onas have never 
been united in a common interest, nor have they 
ever been led by one great chief. They are 
divided into small clans, under leaders with limited 
powers, and these chiefs have waged constant war- 
fare among themselves. Now they have a new 
enemy in the white sheep farmers and gold diggers 
that have invaded their island. The giant In- 
dians make periodical raids on sheep herds, and 
not even the presence of Winchester rifles, as 
against their primitive bows and arrows, can 
hold them in check. The Onas are giants. Their 
average height is about six feet, while some are 
six feet six inches in height. There are only about 
1,600 of them altogether, divided into sixteen tribes. 
The women are not so tall, but are more corpu- 
lent. Dr. Cook says there is no race in the world 
with a more perfect physical development than the 
Ona men. They live entirely by hunting and have 
no houses nor even tents, a mere shelter of skins 
and brush serving to give them what little im- 
munity they need from rains and storms. 

Russia's Asiatic Railroad Ambitions. 
Alexander Hume Ford writes on " The Warfare 
of Railways in Asia," and tells of the Russian 
foresight which has seized Siberia and Trans-Cas- 
pia and planted a great railroad system there, from 
which branch lines are about to radiate. Oae of 
these branch lines is aiming for Constantinople, 
the next almost touches Teheran, the middle one is 
in central Asia, has touched Herat, and will soon 
reach Kandahar. The fourth, starting from Sam- 
arkand, has already reached the border of China, 
and aims at Pekin, and a fifth has already ad- 
vanced to the capital of China. Mr. Ford gives 
an account of the railroad interests of the other 
nine nations in Asia. The very greatest thorn 
in Russia's side is Japan's only railroad conces- 
sion on the whole continent, that in Korea, from 
Fusan to Seoul. This promises to be the cause of 
what Mr. Ford calls the evidently inevitable con- 



flict over Asiatic railroad concessions, and may 
compel Russia to winter her Pacific squadron in 
Nagasaki harbour. Japan, feeling sure of the 
backing of England and China, wishes to bring 
matters to a trial of conclusions before the com- 
pletion of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which will 
forever settle the doom of Korea as an independent 
nation; but Russia has given England assurances 
which, for the sake of peace, Great Britain accepts 
as if she really believed them to be in earnest. 

Animals About to Become Extinct. 
In an excellent first article of a series, entitled 
" The National Zoo at Washington," in which 
Ernest Seton-Thompson makes a study of its ani- 
mals in relation to their national environment, 
he makes a plea for the preservation of some 
specimens of the great Alaskan bear, the largest 
and most wonderful of its race. He says that in 
one year, or at most in two years, unless Congress 
is willing to vote the price, or half the price of a 
single big gun to it, the world will lose this animal, 
in the same way that it has lost the great auk, the 
Labrador duck, and the West India seal. 



Harper's Magazine. 

In the March " Harper's " Captain A. T. Mahan 
discusses " The Problem of Asia." Russia he calls 
the largest single element in forming the future of 
Asia. This happens because " only parts of the 
Russian territory, and those, even in the aggre- 
gate, small and uninfluential comparatively to the 
whole, enjoy the benefits of maritime commerce. 
It is, therefore, the interest of Russia not merely 
to reach the sea at more points and more in- 
dependently, but to acquire, by possession or by 
control, the usufruct of other and extensive mari- 
time regions, the returns from which shall redound 
to the general prosperity of the entire empire." 
Captain Mahan thinks that it is a wrong attitude 
for outside States to take, when they offer only 
opposition and hostility toward Russia in the face 
of these conditions. He thinks that States that 
have a requisite seaboard, and well-rounded phy- 
sical conditions, owe at the least candour, if not 
sympathy, to Russia in her situation. Neverthe- 
less, in the readjustment of the Asiatic organisms 
other nations have the duty to see that the proper 
equilibrium is attained. He hopes that we may 
avoid a struggle in the dismembering of Asia, and 
rely on " the artificial methods of counsel and 



524 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



agreement," which seem somewhat more suitable 
.to the present day. 



M'Clure's Magazine. 

In the March " M'Clure's " are a sketch of Ed- 
•mond Rostand, the author of " Cyrano de Ber- 
gerac," written by Mr. Cleveland Moffett, and Mr. 
Walter Wellman's account of the disaster to the 
arctic expedition of 1898-99, which we have re- 
viewed in another department. 

A Railroad to the Klondyke. 
Mr. Cy. Warman tells about " Building a Rail- 
road Into the Klondyke," and gives the story of the 
construction of the road over the new White Pass 
and Yukon Line. By this line one travels from 
San Francisco 1,750 miles or from Seattle 1,080 
miles by steamer to Skagway, and then takes the 
railroad by way of Lake Bennett, White Horse 
Rapids, and the Lewis River to Fort Selkirk on 
the Yukon. A small piece of the railroad from 
Skagway to Lake Bennett is now completed, as 
much more is promised to be completed about June, 
1900, and the larger portion, from White Horse 
Rapids to Fort Selkirk, has been surveyed. Mr. 
Warman tells us that the pessimistic reports of 
the " busting " of the Klondyke boom and the 
deadness of Dawson are not borne out by his ex- 
perience, although men have been saying these 
things for months. In August, 1899, he found 
Skagway full of people, busy, happy, and hopeful. 
Mr. Warman thinks that next summer a man who 
figures his connections carefully will be able to 
get from Chicago to Dawson City in less than nine 
days, allowing, as Mr. Warman picturesquely puts 
it, "from Chicago to Seattle, three sleeps; Seattle 
to Skagway, three sleeps; Skagway to White 
Horse, half a day; White Horse to Dawson, two 
sleeps; total, eight and a half days." 

The Voyage of the '•Destroyer." 
Captain Joshua Slocum, whose account of his 
voyage around the world we have been reading 
in the " Century," describes in this number of 
" M'Clure's " " The Voyage of the ' Destroyer,' from 
New York to Brazil." The " Destroyer " was a 
ship fitted out by a Yankee trader for the use of 
Mr. Peixoto, President of Brazil, to enable him 
to scare the rebellious navy into submission. This 
ship was a formidable craft, invented by Ericsson, 
of about 130 tons register. She carried a brass 
cannon forty-three feet long, built securely in the 
bows eight feet below the water line. This gun, 
with a charge of 50 pounds of powder, fired a pro- 
jectile 35 feet long, and carrying 350 pounds of 
compressed gun-cotton, which, by contact, would 
explode and destroy anything afloat. Captain 



Slocum gives a dramatic account of the dangerous 
voyage to Bahia, Brazil, on this strange craft. 
The " Destroyer" never destroyed anything ex- 
cept herself, being smashed on a rock as soon as 
they got into port, hut the rebel fleet did not know 
of it, and surrendered on the news of her arrival. 



The Cosmopolitan. 

Mr. William Marsh writes in the March " Cos- 
mopolitan " on wolves that are respectable, and 
supports his contention that the wolf may be do- 
mesticated by some extraordinary pictures of gray 
wolves which have been tamed and domesticated 
on the ranch of Mr. Bothwell, in Wyoming. The 
illustrations show girls and young men frolicking 
with the gray beasts as one would with a very 
tractable dog. 

California's Flower Gardens. 
In describing " The World's Largest Truck Gar- 
dens " Mr. John B. Bennett tells how California 
has come to devote vast areas to a single product 
because of the use of machinery, and the inability 
of one sort of machine to work another crop than 
that for which it was designed. He tells us that it 
has been demonstrated that California can compete, 
even with cut flowers, with the hot-house flowers of 
the East, and that the flower farms of that State 
are destined to occupy a high place in the coast's 
material assets. The flowers are grown in the 
open air. of course, and are much superior in 
strength, beauty, and durability to the hot-house 
product. 



Muns y's Magazine. 

In the March " Munsey's " Mr. Waldon Faw- 
cett describes, under the title " The World's 
Greatest Canal," the "Soo," the water gateway of 
the North-West, and its huge volume of commerce, 
which far exceeds the tonnage that traverses the 
Suez Canal or that enters the port of New York. 
The aggregate tonnage of the lake craft, indeed, 
exceeds the entire fleet on our Atlantic, Pacific, and 
Gulf coasts. The huge canal Mr. Fawcett de- 
scribes locks through vessels carrying cargoes of 
8,000 tons. The *' Soo " has two magnificent locks, 
one of which is the largest in the world, and 
which are operated free of cost so far as the ves- 
sels are concerned. Through the larger four 
steamers can lock simultaneously. The activities 
of the Rockefeller and Carnegie interests in the 
large regions have produced new types of trans- 
portations units. The vessels are increasing in 
size very rapidly, and on" has the spectacle on 
the lakes of a steamer quite the equal in size of 



ueviBW or liKviEw.i 
April 13, LiOU. 



The Reviews Reviewed. 



525 



the average trans-Atlantic liner of a few years ago 
towing behind it one or two immense barges. 
Thus one engine hauls down the lakes at a speed 
of about eleven miles an hour enough iron ore 
to fill about thirty ordinary freight trains. 

The War Against Consumption. 
Dr. John H. Girdner, in his article on " The War 
Against Consumption," tells of the discoveries that 
have shown tuberculosis to be a preventable dis- 
ease, with precautions by which it might be 
avoided, and what has actually been done in this 
and other countries toward stamping out the most 
fatal scourge of humanity. Of the actual re- 
sults of the work of education and of the exam- 
ination of infected cattle is shown the table of 
death-rates from tuberculosis diseases in New 
York City for the twelve years prior to 1898. 
There is almost a continuous decrease from 442 
deaths in 1886, to 285 in 1897. In England and 
Wales the death-rate has been reduced from more 
than 38 per 10,000 in 1838, to about 13 in 10,000 at 
the present time. 



The Contemporary Review. 

The "Contemporary Review" for March is chiefly 
notable for the fact that it contains not a single 
article dealing with the war, and only one — that of 
Colonel Maude, which is noticed elsewhere 
— treating of the military questions it involves. 

A Garden of Mercy. 
The Duchess of Sutherland gives a brief, but in- 
teresting, sketch of the Christian Labour Colony 
at Lingfield and of its reformatory work. " Back 
to the country" is the motto of this institution, 
for work and thrift and self-control, as the director 
says, " cannot be learned in a town." The Ling- 
field colony, every spring, emigrates a large num- 
ber of farm-trained men, of which a large propor- 
tion do excellently. The inspirer of the colony 
is Dr. Paton, of Nottingham. 

No Room to Live. 
Mr. Robert Donald reviews the schemes which 
have been carried out for housing the poor within 
the last few years, and concludes that not one- 
tenth of the work which has to be done has yet 
been done. The need for better housing increases 
at a greater rate than can be kept pace with, and 
runts were never so high. The essence of the 
problem lies in the injustice that a grocer or 
butcher who sells bad food can be punished, while 
against the landlord wl - lets bad houses no re- 
dress can be obtained, an., he is even rewarded. 
The loss on clearance schemes 'n London between 
1876 and 1898 was considerably over two millions, 
and the cost per head for slum clearances has been 
9 



over £500 per family. Rapid and cheap means of 
transit are perhaps the most effectual remedy, but 
unfortunately in some suburbs the housing con- 
ditions are as bad as in the cities. Mr. Donald 
thinks the Housing Act must be amended before 
anything can be done. 

Science and Providence. 
Mr. D. S. Cairns has a paper under this title, 
the object of which is to make certain suggestions 
for the reconciliation of the scientific conception 
of the world as a Reign of Law with the Chris- 
tian conception of a Divine Providence. He con- 
cludes his article as follows: — 

Returning, then, to the apparent antithesis betweea 
the religious and the scientific views of the world with 
which we began, we find that both, when rightly re- 
garded, converge upon a great world end of a social 
order. If the ends, then, of the two " Weltanachauun- 
gen " tend to identity, can there be any real contradic- 
tion between the means? Is it not more 
probable that the apparent discords between 
the scientific and the religious explanations of 
any given fact arise from the very different point of 
view from which that fact is regarded, rather than from 
any vital contradiction of principle? It is not con- 
tended that the solution suggested here does not stand 
in need of supplement from other ways of dealing with 
the question, nor even that with these aids all diffi- 
culties are fully removed. But it is maintained that 
the introduction into the field of thought of the prin- 
ciple of the Kingdom of God removes many difficulties, 
and takes us a long way towards the solution of th« 
central problem. 

Other Articles. 

Mr. A. R. Roper writes on Maeterlinck, his judg- 
ment being that the Flemish mystic will be re- 
membered in the future merely as a stimulating 
influence, and not for having done any immortal 
work himself. The Hon. Stephen Coleridge, writ- 
ing on " Some London Hospitals and their Audited 
Accounts," deals with the devotion of public sub- 
scriptions to the purposes of vivisection. Mr. E. 
Saint-Genix begins a series of articles on " Mon- 
astic Orders Up to Date," in which he brings black 
accusations against the conventual orders of 
France. The only other article is that in which 
Mr. Charles Johnston describes, in the dramatic 
form of a story, a rising against Russian rule in 
Central Asia. 



The Nineteenth Century 

The " Nineteenth Century " for March is an ex- 
cellent number, and contains scarcely a paper 
which might not be made the subject of a leading 
article if space permitted. 

Russia and Persia 

General Sir Thos. Gordon, in an article on " The 
Problem of the Middle East," reviews the rela- 
tions of Russia and England with Persia. He says 
a po'ent fnctor in the inclination of Persia towards 
Russia in recent times is the fact that the present 
ruling dynasty and almost all the ministers, not- 



526 



1 he Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



ablee, and courtiers hail from Northern Persia, and 
their family and personal interests dictate defer- 
ence to their Northern neighbour. The main fac- 
tor in deciding Persia's railway policy of late years 
has been the Russo-Persian agreement of 1890, 
by which all railway construction in Persia was 
prohibited for ten years. This arrangement will 
expire next November, so that fresh activity may 
shortly be expected from the Russian side. Sir 
Thomas Gordon, strange to say, does not seem to 
be aware of the progress already made by the 
Russian engineers in surveying the route for the 
extension of the Caspian railway to Teheran and 
Ispahan, and afterwards to the coast. 

The Sierra Leone Rebellion. 
Lady Chalmers contributes an interesting paper 
in defence of her husband, Sir David Chalmers, 
who investigated the causes of the hut-tax rebel- 
lion in Sierra Leone, and whose report was treated 
bo unceremoniously by Mr. Chamberlain, who did 
not scruple to charge the Commissioner with bring- 
ing false accusations. Sir David Chalmers de- 
clared that the hut-tax, and the brutality with 
which it was collected, were the prime causes of 
the rebellion, and made severe strictures upon the 
administration of the country. He believed — what 
1b rare nowadays — that the native races, even when 
they stood in the way of so-called civilisation, had 
rights Just as other men. Lady Chalmers' ar- 
ticle is a complete vindication of his memory. 

Middle Age and Its Burdens. 
Mrs. Hugh Bell contributes, mainly from a 
woman's point of view, a very interesting article 
describing " Some Difficulties Incidental to Middle 
Age." The moral of her article is that the path 
from youth to middle age is one of ceaseless com- 
promise between aspirations and achievements: — 

Arrived at middle age, it is very possible that most 
of us will have been called upon to renounce a good 
deal; we started, probably, with the conviction that 
our heads would strike the stars, and we have become 
strangely reconciled to the fact that they do not reach 
the ceiling. But it was no doubt better to start with 
the loftier idea: a man should allow a good margin for 
■hrinkage in his visions of the future. And it is 
curious, it is pathetic, to see with what ease we mav ac- 
complish the gradual descent to the lower level, on which 
we find ourselves at last goine along, if in somewhat lens 
heroic fashion than we anticinated. yet on the whole 
comfortably and happily. We have accepted a good 
deal, we have learnt how to carry our burdens in the 
way that is easiest. We are no loneer storm-tossed: 
we know pretty much, arrived at this stage, what we 
are going to do, those of us who thought they were 
going to do anything. The fact of taking life on a lower 
level of expectations makes it all the more likely that 
those expectations will be fulfilled. We have, with 
some easing of conscience, accepted certain characteris- 
tics and manifestations on our own part as inevitable, 
secretly and involuntarily cherishing a hope that where 
these do not fit in with those of our surroundings, it may 
yet be possible that other people should alter theirs. 



Cromwell as Constitutionalist. 
Mr. J. P. Wallis, writing on " Cromwell's Consti- 
tutional Experiments,'' traces the evolution of 
Cromwell from military dictator to constitutional 
ruler. He says: — 

Cromwell's evolution from military dictator to consti- 
tutional ruler makes a very interesting story, eyea 
though the results were not destined to be lasting. 
The question has often been asked whether, had he 
lived another ten years, he would have succeeded in 
winning acceptance for a constitutional monarchy under 
a dynasty of Cromwells. Constitutional argument* help 
very little here, and even general history can supply n» 
certain answer. As our greatest authority has pointed 
out, Cromwell was the representative of the force* of 
militant Puritanism, which were not in harmony with 
the larger mind of the nation; and it is not easy to see 
how he and his dynasty could have escaped, even had 
they wished to do so, from that compromising environ- 
ment. 

Scripture and Roman Catholicism. 

Dr. St. George Mivart, in an article under the 

above heading, replies to the Rev. Father Clarke's 

exposition of the " Continuity of Catholicism," 

which appeared in the " Nineteenth Century " for 

February. He says: — 

To deny that change is inevitable in the dogmata at 
the Church and in the accepted meaning of every one 
of them, is to deny that to which the Church herself 
and all her dogmata owe their very existence. In 
the sidereal universe, in the solar system, in our oirs 
planet, and in the physical, vital, sentient and rational 
phenomena it exhibits, evolution everywhere rules. Ik 
rules the intellectual, ethical and aesthetic development 
of the human race, and its action becomes the more 
clearly seen the more patiently we study the history 
of religion in all its varied forms with their varied 
developments from age to age. 



The National Review. 

There is plenty of vigorous criticism in the 
March number of the powers that be. Sir Row- 
land Blennerhassett's warning against a European 
coalition claims separate notice. 

The War Office Incompetent. 

Mr. H. O. Arnold Forster, M.P., indulges in the 

severest criticisms of the War Office. He rehearses 

the main contentions of the critics, and argues that 

they have been completely verified in the course 

of the present war. He lays special stress on the 

point " that, owing to the faulty system adopted, n« 

efficient body of men could be despatched from this 

country in an emergency, without either destroying 

the whole regimental system at home, or calling 

out the Reserves."' The Reserve has, in faft, 

come to be considered no longer as a Resedrve, but 

as our first line in time of war. The following 

passage represents the nature and tone ef Mr. 

Forster's general indictment: — 

Scientific method, specialised instruction, the adapta- 
tion of means to ends, preparation in advance for con- 
tingencies which are certain to arise, these are the re- 
quisites for obtaining success in any business, whether 
it be that of running a sweetstuff shop or an Empire. 
But the fact has been absolutely left out of aight hitherto 



Review of Reviews, 
April 1J, 1U0O. 



The Reviews Reviewed. 



5 2 7 



by those who are supposed to be responsible for the 
conduct of that great business, the defence of the Bri- 
tish Empire. 

The Navy Topsy-Turvy. 

Sir John Colomb deals in heavy diatribes on 
" Waste and Confusion in the Navy." What spe- 
cially rouses his ire is the inversion of the duties 
of sailors and of marines. He says: — 

Landing the naval officers and sailors to act aa imita- 
tion marines on shore with field-guns, or as infantry, 
while leaving the real marine officers and men on the 
ehips to act as sailors, became the custom of the service. 
. . . . The Admiralty can't or won't see that the 
modern blue-jacket is a marine in the disguise of a sea- 
man. He is an infinitely more costly article to the 
taxpayer than the marine, who, in a mastleas ship, 
practically does now the same work. 

Sir John lays down these postulates of reform: — 

The engineer has prevailed, and must prevail. The 
result is, that sailors, officers and men naturally tend 
to become, in all but name and dress — marines. . . . 
Keep the marine force more as a reserve for the Navy, 
by quartering them at the naval bases and coaling- 
stations; sending officers and men to sea in rotation, for 
sea-training purposes, change, and variety only, thus 
keeping naval officers and seamen more at sea in their 
places. 

The Fortnightly Review. 

The " Fortnightly " for March is not an enliven- 
ing number, and contains no article of first-rate ex- 
cellence. Seven articles deal directly or indirectly 
•with the war and its issues. 

Performing Animals. 
Mr. F. G. Aflalo writes on " The Ethics of Per- 
forming Animals," the main point of his article 
being to show that performances with dangerous 
animals ought to be prohibited. The domesti- 
cated animals are more legitimate subjects, for, 
with them, tricks are a real test of Intelligence, as 
they cannot be bullied or frightened like savage 
beasts. But, " On many counts — the possible 
cruelty to the animals, the danger to the trainer, 
above all, the utter uselessness of the whole thing 
— exhibitions of performing lions and bears may 
stanrl condemned." 

Cruelty to Animals. 
The Hon. Stephen Coleridge has an article on the 
administration of the Cruelty to Animals Act of 
1876. in which he comes to the following con- 
clusions: — 

(1) That the Home Secretary allows the safeguards 
provided by the Act of 1876 against the torture of 
animals to be removed. 

(2) That the Home Secretary, as far as possible, 
throws the cloak of secrecy over hie method of ad- 
ministration of the Act. 

(.?) That the Home Secretary, in reply to questions 
in Parliament addressed to him for the purpose of pro- 
curing information that the public are entitled to re- 
ceive, mnkes statements that contradict each other. 

(4) That the Parliamentary Report, purporting to 
give an exact account of what has taken place in labora- 
tories, is compiled from unverified statements made by 
the vivisectors themselves. 



(5) That when breaches of the law are committed, the 
Home Secretary neither enforces the penalties specifi- 
cally provided by the Aot himself, nor enables others 
to enforce them. 

The law, as now administered, affords no pro- 
tection whatever to animals, and at present only 
protects the vivisector. 

Copyright Legislation. 
Mr. G. Herbert Thring writes in support of 
Lord Monkswell's Copyright Bill, upon which he 
comments clause by clause. He says that the 
Bill is the most serious effort that has been made 
to simplify and consolidate copyright law sinee 
1845. The Bill is divided into three parts, as 
stated in the memorandum prefixed: — 

(1) Copyright property so-called, or the right of multi- 
plying copies of books. 

(2) Performing rights, or the right of publicly per- 
forming dramatic works or musical works. 

(3) Lecturing rights, or the right of orally delivering 
lectures. 

Other Articles. 

There are four other articles, the most important 

of which is Professor Lewis Campbell's on " Liberal 

Movements in the Last Half Century," in which he 

summarises the attempts made in recent years to 

remove the traditional hindrances to free thought 

and action. Professor James Ward continues his 

controversy with Mr. Herbert Spencer. Mr. C. 

Stein writes on " Our Game Books," and Fiona 

Macleod begins a characteristic essay on Iona, " the 

Mecca of the Gael." 



Cornhill. 

The March " Cornhill " is a capital number. Of 
special interest are Sir John Robinson's almost 
plaintive reminiscences of Natal and of friendship 
between Boer and Briton before the Raid; Mr. 
Birrell's lecture on "Taste in Books;" and Mr. 
Spenser Wilkinson's criticisms of army manage- 
ment. The number opens with a " Sonnet " on 
Charlotte and Emily Bronte, by M. A. W.— initial* 
which will suggest to most readers the signature 
of Mrs. Humphry Ward, whose recent studies on 
the Brontes are well known. There is towards the 
close another fine Sonnet, of which the author 1b 
Dr. Todhunter, and the subject John Ruskin. Lady 
Broome contributes charming reminiscences of he* 
feathered pets under the title of " Bird Notes.** 
" Clover and Heart's-ease " is the somewhat ex- 
traordinary heading which Mrs. Bernard Bosanr 
quet gives to her study of the way'lawyers thrive 
In poor quarters. Clover and heart's-ease cannot 
prosper, It seems, unless cats abound, which kill 
the mice which eat the humble-bees which fertilise 
the plants; but the writer is puzzled to decide 
whetherthelcRflpentlemen who grow f&t in a square 
of human humble-bees are the cats or tha mice* 



52H 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



The reader will probably decide in favour of the 
mice, and wish for cats. Mr. Harold Macfarlane 
relates the prices fetched for personal relics to il- 
lustrate " the value of a dead celebrity," and 
reckons " from the prices already presented that 
although we have only dealt with the hair 
(£4,000), moustache and beard (£250), vest 
(£210), shirt with blood-stain (£100), waistcoat 
(£33), walking-stick (£25), sword (£20), orders 
(£100), watch (£25), seal (£6 10s.), shoe-buckles 
(£10), rings (£50), our celebrity would produce 
almost £5,000. Rev. Canon Staveley eulogises 
Antoine Drouot, commander of the French artil- 
lery at Waterloo, as an almost ideal soldier-saint 
— a Catholic, and not, as the writer had supposed, 
a Protestant. At his advice Napoleon postponed 
the attack on the British forces from seven till 
half-past eleven, to give the ground time to dry 
after the rain; and so, as Drouot subsequently re- 
proached himself: " Had he disregarded my advice, 
Wellington would have been attacked at seven, 
beaten at ten, the victory would have been com- 
pleted at noon, and Blucher, not arriving until five, 
would have fallen into the hands of a victorious 
army." Cambridge a hundred years ago, as por- 
trayed by Mr. W. B. Duffield, offers anything but a 
pleasing picture. Religion and morals were at a 
very low ebb. 



influences, and that he was very notably affected 
by tea and coffee. A cup of strong tea produced 
a most depressing effect on his whole being, mak- 
ing him see things on their dark side, and coffee, 
on the other hand, made everything look bright 
and rosy. 



The Ladies' Home Joarnal. 

In the March " Ladies' Home Journal " the editor 
comments on the turn of the tide of women going 
into business occupations other than dressmaking, 
teaching, and domestic pursuits. The beginning 
of the movement toward business pursuits for 
women began about 1870, and by 1890 there were 
nearly 4,000,000 women engaged in gainful pursuits 
of all kinds, and since 1890 there has been a still 
further large increase. But Mr. Bok thinks there 
is a change of sentiment, and that while a num- 
ber of business positions for which women are 
especially fitted will still be held by them, and 
creditably, still the day of woman's promiscuously 
going into business is over, the weeding process 
having begun. Mr. Bok thinks this is a good 
ihing, and answers the question as to what will 
become of all the women who would otherwise 
have gone in business by saying that they will go 
back to the home as domestic helpers. 

Mr. Beeaher's Stimulants. 
The article 6n " The Anecdotal Side of Great 
Men " Is concerned this month with Mr. Beecher. 
A pnrqs^-fiph in it says that Mr. Beecher's imagina- 
tion seemed to be peculiarly sensitive to certain 



The Atlantic Monthly. 

In the March " Atlantic Monthly " ex-Secretary 
Richard Olney opens the number with an article 
on America's growing foreign relations. 

A Romp with Nathaniel Hawthorne. 

An exceedingly readable article is " A Girl of 

Sixteen at Brook Farm," by Ora G. Sedgwick. The 

writer's reminiscences of Charles A. Dana and 

Hawthorne are unusually lively and interesting. 

She says that Hawthorne talked but little at the 

table, and was a very taciturn man, but that he 

could unbend is shown dramatically by her account 

of a frolic in which she and her roommate, Ellen 

Slade, indulged: — 

One evening he was alone in the hall, sitting on a chair 
at the further end, when my roommate, Ellen Slade, 
and myself, were going upstairs. She whispered to me: 
" Let's throw the sofa pillows at Mr. Hawthorne." 
Reaching over the banisters, we each took a cushion 
and threw it. Quick as a flash he put out his hand, 
seized a broom that was hanging near him, warded off * 
our cushions, and threw them back with sure aim. A» 
fast as we could throw them at him he returned them 
with effect, hitting us every time, while we could hit 
only the broom. He must have been very quick in> 
his movements. Through it all not a word was spoken. 
We laughed and laughed, and his eyes shone and twin- 
kled like stars. 



Scribner's. 

The March " Scribner's " opens with Mr. H. J. 
Whigham's account of " The Fighting with 
Methuen's Division " in the actions of Belmont, 
Gras Pan, and Modder River. Mr. Whigham 
writes from the very strongest pro-British point of 
view. 

The Expanding Cable Systems. 

In " The Point of View " a paragraph calls at- 
tention to the immense advance in cable facilities- 
which imperial duties will necessitate. The writer 
thinks that it is but a short time when every Eng- 
lish, German, and French colony will have its 
cable communications direct to London, Berlin, 
and Paris. In Washington they are discussing an> 
impeiial cable system to the new possessions in the 
Philippines, and, indeed, when one considers how 
vastly necessary cable communications are in the 
huge trading associations called empires, one may 
wonder why the te^graph system of the globe has 
not been more nearly perfected before this. 



ttBVlKW OF RKV1KWS, 
APRIL 15, l'JOO. 



5 29 



BUSINESS DEPARTMENT. 



THE FINANCIAL HISTORY OF THE MONTH. 



I.-FINANCE AND TRADE IN VICTORIA. 

By "A. J. Wilson, June." 



English v. Australian Loans. 

Some time back a very interesting point was raised 
in the monthly articles appearing under the above bead- 
ing, relating to the comparative interest paid on locally- 
raised loans and those floated in England. From the 
grains of interest sown then has grown the tree of dis- 
cussion, which is now noticeable. Not only has the 
point come into notice on this side, but one or two 
home journals have referred to the matter, and it can 
hardly now be overlooked that a change — a change, we 
are inclined to think, very much for the better — is likely 
to soon come in the financial methods of Australasian 
Treasurers. Of late, we have the examples of Western 
Australia paying 5 per cent, in London for Treasury 
bills with two years' currency; New South Wales paid 
a shade over 4| for an emission of the same character; 
while New Zealand obtained a better result, the interest 
charge being close up to 4 per cent. On top of these 
flotations we have the South Australian loan for 
£1,000,000 which averaged about £94 10s. 9d., and yield- 
ing to the British investor over £3 lis. per cent., if re- 
deemed in 1916, and the Western Australian 3 per cent, 
loan for £1,000,000 also issued in London, which gives 
an interest return on the average obtained of nearly £3 
12s. od. Of course, it is argued that the London money 
market is stringent, and that the loans were issued on 
the best terms obtainable. That may be so, but still 
there is no excuse in this explanation for the passing 
over of the local investor. The latter appears to be 
regarded in the incapable brains of many colonial Trea- 
surers as a hapless being, who does not deserve con- 
sideration, and should certainly not have an oppor- 
tunity to apply for a loan, for the redemption of which 
he is responsible, on anything like the same terms as 
the great British investor. 

Our Financial Debt to England. 

In reality, we owe the British investor far 
too much already, and the repeated applications 
which have been made of late have received 
•comparatively such poor receptions on the other side, 
that it mav be taken for granted that investors generally 
throughout the United Kingdom do not regard Austra- 
lasian loans with any great favour. One " great " excuse 
which has been urged by the gentry who will raise 
money in London, and nowhere else, is that if the loan, 
or a portion of the loan, be raised locally, the expense 
of remitting the same to London more than swallows 
up any gain in cases where the money is due in London 



on redemptions. To show how fallacious this is, it may 
be mentioned that not only have the Governments aJU 
paid £1 per cent, to syndicates or Banks in London 
to underwrite their loans, paid a stamp duty at, the 
rate of 12s. 6d. per cent., and the brokerage of 5s. pee 
cent., but each year they have to remit the interest, 
and pay exchange on that. Even then the liability 
is only being handed down to posterity just as our ante- 
cedents handed them down to us, and each succeeding 
year our burden of debt to England grows heavier and 
heavier. 



PHGENBX ASSURANCE 
COMPANY. 



Established 1782. 



One of the Oldest and Wealthiett 

Fire Offices in the World. 



Fir* Losses Paid Exceed £23,000,000. 
Premium Income Exceeds £1,100,000. 



ALL CLASSEi OF FIRE RISKS ACCEPTED AT LOW1 
CURRENT RATES. 



VICTORIAN BRANCH : 60 MARKET ST., MELBOURNE 



ROBERT W, MABTIH, HuifM, 



5.1o 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



DI.RECTOBT 

OF THE 

Stock Exchange of Adelaide. 



C. PROUD 

(Member Stock Exchange of Adelaide), 

SHAEEBROKER, 

6 WARE CHAMBERS, KING WILLIAM STREET, 

ADELAIDE. 



A. S. FOTHERINGHAM & CO. 

(Member of the Stock Exchange of Adelaide), 

SHAREBROKERS, 

BROOKMAN^S BUILDINGS - ADELAIDE. 



SILVER & ESPEE 

(Members Stock Exohange of Adelaide), 

SHAREBROKERS, 13 to 18 PIRIE CHAMBERS, 
and 7 and 8 ELBURN CHAMBERS, KALGOORLIE. 



S, C. Ward Member Stock Exchange of Adelaide. 
Edward Ward. 

S. C WARD & CO., 

STOCK AND SHAREBROKERS. 

27 GRENEELL ST., ADELAIDE. 

Commission Bus nets Only 



HENRY CHEWiNGS 

(Member of the Stock Exchange of Adelaide), 

STOCK AND SHAREBROKER. 

2 and 3 ALMA CHAMBERS, ADELAIDE. 
Telephone 518. 



SMITH & THOMPSON, 

STOCK AND SHAREBROKERS. 
DAVENPORT CHAMBERS, ADELAIDE. 

Member of the Stock Exchange of Adelaide. 



DAVIES & HAMER, 

SHAREBROKERS 

(Member Stock Exchange of Adelaide), 

KING WHjIJAM STREET, ADELAIDE. 



A Suggestion. 

The expenses of issuing a loan in the colonies 
are lighter than they are in England. The brokerage 
is certainly more, but the other items far smaller. It 
can be fairly claimed that all loans should be issued 
concurrently in London and in the colony asking for 
funds. Highest tenders would take preference, and if 
the colonial investor offered to pay more than his English 
confrere, he would secure as much as he desired. The 
balance would be absorbed in London, and the com- 
petition for the loan would be much increased, and the 
return to the Government greater. It is not a very 
great departure. Such a system would be merely con- 
sideration to colonials, while it would also tend to give 
our credit in London more stability from the fact that 
the cry of the rabid financial writers, that Austra- 
lasian loan requirements were merely to be utilised to 
put off the day of national insolvency, would be silenced. 
Instead, what do we find? At the moment New South 
Wales, after borrowing at 44_ in London, is about to 
offer half a million of five year Treasury Bills in 
Sydney at 3J per cent. South Australia was charging 
equal to £97 10s. net for 3 per cent, stock at the South 
Australian Treasury, when it secured a net return of no 
more than £93 in London. In Queensland, Western 
Australia, and New Zealand, the local investor has 
never had a chance; while in Victoria the Victorian 
Government demands £101 at the Treasury for its 
3 per cent, stock: while exactly the same security is 
selling in the market in London at £96. The present 
system is out of date; injurious to the credit of the 
colonies, and injurious to colonials themselves, in that 
it reflects on their financial capacity. Let every loan 
be issued concurrently in London and the colonies, and 
the interest be paid and the capital repaid at the desire 
of the purchaser or holder of the stock. Outlets for 
investment of a safe character would be increased, a 
great portion of the 46 per cent, of the savings of the 
Australasians, at present almost entirely unremunerative, 
could be employed profitably; while the duties of trust 
companies and trustees would be made lighter, and the 
change of " overmortgaging " be materially diminished. 
It is said that in Victoria the permanent Treasury 
officials have the matter under consideration. We 
scarcely look for its consummation before Federation, 
but there can be little doubt that when the Common- 
wealth is established, if a man with average brains 
be placed in charge of the finances, an up-to-date and 
beneficial system will take the place of the obsolete and 
injurious one now existing. 

March Banking Returns. 

The last two years have seen some interesting changes 
in the Banking returns of this colony, which have been 
generally reflected in the adjoining States. The March 
figures which are just issued again mark previous move- 
ments. By far the most extraordinary are the rapid 
rise in deposits not bearing interest or deposits at call, 
and the reduction in advances, and the swelling of re- 
serves of coin. The movements under the principal 
headings will be more plainly seen from the following 
table: — 

LIABILITIES. 
December March 

Quarter. Quarter. 
£ £ 

Note circulation.. 951,794 .. 982,095 .. 
Government deposits — 

Current .. .. 172,002 .. 275,698 .. 

Fixed 2,533,241 .. 2,756,357 .. 

Public deposits — 

Current .. .. 12,149,386 .. 12,808,265 .. 

Fixed 14,255,466 .. 14,610,714 .. 



"Increase. 
'Decrease. 
£ 
**30,301 

**103,696 
**223,116 



Total liabilities . 

Coin and bullion. 
Advances 
Total assets . . 



**658,879 
"355,248 

**1 



31,274,373 .. 32,665,895 .. **1,391,522 

ASSETS. 

6,971,796 .. 7,705,978 .. **734.182 

30,143,322 .. 29,407,623 .. *735,69» 

40,522,114 .. 40,416,926 .. *105,18» 



Review of Reviews, 
April 15, l'JOO. 



The Financial History of the Month. 



If we turn back to the March quarter, 1889, extra- 
ordinary differences present themselves. These differ- 
ences are illustrated in the following table: — 



March. 
1889. 

£ 
1,678,407 



March. 
1900. 

£ 
982,095 

12,80S,265 



**In crease. 
'Decrease. 
£ 
*696,312 

**2,390,181 

•10,127,232 

. ••1,180,716 

•17,431,423 



Note circulation . , 

Public deposits — 

Current .. .. 10,418,084 

Fixed 24,737,946 .. 14,610,714 

Coin and bullion. . 5,791,080 . . 6,971,796 . 

Advances .. .. 46,839,046 .. 29,407,623 . 

That such a change should come over the position of 
banking in this colony in eleven years is striking. The 
period compared includes the great boom (at about its 
height in 1889) and five years of financial depression and 
five seasons of drought. The comparison is of great 
interest, but the 1889 figures, it must be remembered, 
include several defunct institutions' returns. Coming 
back to tihe movements during the past year, the follow- 
ing figures show the position clearly: — 



Note circulation . . 
Deposit* . . 

Specie and bullion 
Advances . . 
Total assets . . 
Total liabilities . . 



March. 
1900. 

£ 
982,095 .. 
30,451,034 .. 
7,705,978 .. 
29,407,623 .. 
40,416,926 .. 
32,665,895 .. 



••Increase. 

•Decrease. 

£ 

•*72,624 

••1,372,766 

••1,732,308 

•2,182.743 

•554,437 

••2,394,485 



March. 

1899. 

£ 

909,471 
29,078,268 
5,973,670 
31,590,366 
40,971,363 
30,271,410 

The building up of gold reserves is the outcome of 
two causes. First, with the increase of liabilities at 
call, it is advisable to increase the reserves of the banks; 
and, secondly, to the fact that outside countries have 
not the power to draw on these colonies to the same ex- 
tent as in past years, owing to the material increase 
in the value of exports and the disappearance of the 
usual heavy debit balance. 

The Gold Yields. 

Gold production in Australasia, w*hioh is now the largest 
producer of the precious metal in the world, is a matter 
of great interest. Western Australia continues to sup- 
port bhe late advance, and for the first quarter of 1900 
an increase of 73,485 oz. is shown. The available 
figures are as follows: — 

First 

Quarter, 

1899. 

Oz. 

316,753 

213,848 

205,542 

100,153 

92,718 



Western Australia 

Victoria 

Queensland 

New South Wales 

New Zealand 



First 




Quarter, 


••Increase. 


1900. 


•Decrease. 


Oz. 


Oz. 


. . 387,617 


. . **70.864 


. . 208,008 


•5.840 


. . 226,112 


. . ••20,570 


. . 85,283 


. . '14.870 


. . 95,497 


•*2,761 



Total 929,014 . . 1,002,499 . . **73,485 

Gold production in Victoria may be expected to expand 
during this year. New South Wales should also ad- 
vance later on, while in Queensland and New Zealand 
it is not considered that the industry is anywhere at its 
highest point yet. 

The Outlook. 

Victorian prospects are extremely hopeful — more hope- 
ful, all must admit, than in any single season since 1894. 
We are not inclined to be optimistic now relating to 
seasons. Past experience has taught all that whatever 
may be the outlook for the first seven or eight months 
of the year, three weeks of severe hot winds without 
rain in October are quite sufficient to blight the agri- 
cultural position and inflict severe damage oh the pas- 
toralists. Victoria appears to be in a very much more 
hopeful position than her neighbours. Rain has been 
heavier than for six years, and more evenly distributed. 
Grass is more plentiful, prices for produce continue to 
remain at payable levels, excepting for wheat, and there 



WILLIAM BRINDAL 

(Member Btock Exchange of Adelaide), 

STOCK AND SHAREBROKER. 

29, 29a ROYAL EXCHANGE, [Telephone 629. 

KINO WILLIAM STREET, ADELAIDE. 



C. H. LEAVER 

(Member Stock Exchange of Adelaide), 

SHAREBROKER, 

BROOKMAN'S BUILDINGS, GRENFELL STREET, 

ADELAIDE. 

Telephone No. 819. Correspondence invited. 



F. J. RENGGER & CO., 

SHAREBKOKERS AND MINING AGENTS, 

29d AND 29s ROYAL EXCHANGE, ADELAIDE. 

Code : - Moheino & Neal. 



Telephone No 1018. Commission only. 

LAMBERT LANGMAN 

(A Col mst of over 40 Years), 

SHAKEBROKER, 

No. 20 BROOKMAN'S BUILDINGS, GEENFELL 

STREET, ADELAIDE. 
Over 3 yearg with the late Arm of Messrs. Boach Bros. 



A. Butter Clarke, Member of the Stock Exchange of 

Adelaide and Melbourne. 
R. E. P. Osborne, Member of the Stock Exchange of 

Adelaide. 

CLARKE & CO., 

STOCK AND SHAKE BROKERS, 
UNIVERSAL BUILDINGS, GRENFELL ST., ADELAIDE, 
and at Brookman St., Kalgoorlib. 



FOREiaiT STAMPS 

Our Superior A A Series of Packets (all Post Frsk) — 
200 (all Different) Is. 9d., post free 
120 „ One Shilling, post free. 

60 „ Sixpence, postage free. 

Also, 300 (Specially good) 3s. 6d., post free. 

400 (Very flue), 5s. 6d. 500 (a Collection in itself), 9s.*6d. 
1,500 (all different, no Australian, Magnificent Collection), 75s. 

Specially Cheap B B Series (not so good as the A A, but no 

duplicate in a packet), 150, Is. ; lOO, 6d. post free. 

WE BUY FOR CASH Common Australian Stamps, Id., 

and 2d., 9d. per 1,000; « est Australia, 2s. 6d. 1,000. id- Victoria 
4.1. 100; VV.A. and Tas. 9d. 100; others 6d 100. Tasmania Views 
6d. 1110 ; S.A., new issue, 4d 100., Id. green Is. 3d. 100 For higher- 
priced Australian, 2 i d , 3d , to Is . &c . we pay Is. to 3s 6d. 1"" Cash. 
Newspaper wrappers or Envelopes, cut square with one-third of inch, 
margin, 6d. per 100 

PACKETS and APPROVAL SHEETS ON SALE at— 

Melbourne— T. A. Burraire's, Queen's Walk, Swanston Street, 
and ONLY by Post from 

HOSBER FOREIGN STAMP CO 
27 Armadale St., Armadale, Victoria. 



'Is. or under, II if penny Stamps any colony ; over Is . Postal Not© 



53 2 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



THE MUTUAL LIFE 

INSURANCE COMPANY 

OF NEW YORK. 

RICHARD A. McCURDY, President. 



AUSTRALASIAN DEPARTMENT : 

COMPANY'S BUILDING, MARTIN PLACE, SYDNEY, N.S.W. 

Z C. RENNIE, Genbral Makagbr. 



Statement for Year ending Dec 31, 1899. 



Assets 

Liabilities 

Contingent Guarantee Fund and 
Divisible Surplus 

New Insurance Issued and Paid for 



£61,980,397 
£51,686,239 

£10,294,157 
£34,752,950 



Insurance and Annuities in Force £216,153,020 



NOTE.— The Conversion Rate in use by The Mutual Life is more 
stringent than in any other Company, being $4.87 to the 
pound sterling. It the Rate 54.80 were used the Assets 
instead of appearing as above stated, would amount to 
£62,884, v>78 and the Insurance in Force to £219,305,262. 



riRANCH OFFICES: 

rJEW SOUTH WALE — Company's Building, Martin Plaoe, Sydney 

VICTORIA— 289 Collins Street, Melbourne. 

QUEENSLAND- 210 Queen Street, Brisbane. 

SOUTH AUSTRALIA -73 King William Street, Adelaide. 

WESTERN AUSTRALIA— St. George's Terrace, Perth. 

TASMANIA— 93 Macquarie Street, Hobart. 



THE LIVERPOOL & LONDON & GLOBE 
INSURANCE COMPANY. ' 



■■TAMiin> IBM. 



In TBI 0OLO»I»i, IMS. 



mnuM. 
Tetal Assets at December 31, 1897 - - £10,230,138 
Total Claims Paid to December 81, 1897 - £34,021,341 
Fetal Net Claims Paid in Australasia - £2,182,270 
Tetal Annual Income, 1897 ... £2,304,600 
Funds Inrested in Australia exceed - £300,000 



Australasian Board of Directors, N.S.W. 



W. O. Watt, Esq., Chairman. 
SUM. Hbsbt B. Katsb, M.L.C. 



Hon. Hijim Mobt, ML CJ. 
Xbic H. Haoiat, Siq. 



HEAD OFFICE f>>r Australasia: 

62 PITT STREET, SYDNEY. 

M. W. 8. CLARKE, Renlaeoi H*er»*%rj. 



is every indication that a cycle of disastrous years is 
at an end. In Queensland and parts of north-west New 
South Wales the position is the reverse of favourable. 
The " wet season " has belied its name, and mois- 
ture and feed are almost regarded as things of the dim 
distant past. The western plains of New South Wales, 
speaking generally, are in a bad way; but the tablelands 
and coastal areas and the Riverina are in a better condi- 
tion than for many years, and grass is showing up won- 
derfully, considering previous experiences. In South 
Australia agriculturists speak hopefully, but are, as a 
rule, cautious, remembering the experiences of last sea- 
son, while in Western Australia and New Zealand 
everything has been as good as could be desired. Tas- 
mania, on the east coast, wants rain. Trade generally 
is influenced by the weather — that is, the profitable mar- 
gin over and above absolute necessities — just as the stock 
exchange is influenced by the condition of the money 
market, and, therefore, the first quarter's trade through- 
out the colonies has been good, though not brilliant. 
Brilliancy, however, is scarcely desirable — it means 
furious burning, and that must, of necessity, be shortlived. 
Meteors and other brilliant things die suddenly, and 
though the speculative element is, like the poor, always 
among colonial traders, and the desire for brilliant suc- 
cesses very apparent, >t is not to be expected that the 
experiences of 1802 to 1818 wi 1 ] be forgotten by the pre- 
sent generation; and therefore, though brilliancy is 
6|>oken of as something to he desired, like the Koh-i-nor 
diamond, there are but few striving to attain it. 

The Duties of Directors. 

It is noticeable that this very important question has 
again come up for discussion. The duties of directors, 
as we all know, are arduous; and, therefore, few me* 
who are engaged in active business care to sacrifice 
personal interests of large extent to watching the con- 
trolling the affairs for companies in which they are 
only lightly interested. This lightness of their in- 
terestedness is a point which demands immediate 
attention. The proportion of shares necessary to qualify 
a shareholder to a seat on the Board is notoriously 
small in all companies. As a remedy, it has been sug- 
gested that, at fixed periods, the holdings of directors 
should be published. Tin's is a rather crude idea, but 
it is certain that the qualifying numbers should be in- 
creased. Then, again, there has been the question of 
nominating and appointing men as directors who are in 
a position to use the information divulged at meet- 
ings to their own aggrandisement, and to that of 
their friends at the expense of the very shareholders 
whose interests they are elected to care for. And, 
thirdly, there is the important matter of mu'tiplicity of 
some directors' seats, often in companies directly op- 
posed to each other in their business, which must 
materially weaken the conduct of each individual com- 
pany's affairs. Examples of these abuses are coming 
up every day. Only a short time ago several very glaring 
instances occurred relating to financial institutions 
which should be above all suspicion. These were of 
the " movement of the share-market, and then a favour- 
able declaration by the directors," instead of a " de- 
claration by directors, and, if favourable, a movement 
of shares upwards, and if unfavourable, downwards." 
Instead of taking the " tip " from a directorial de- 
claration, a shareholder must follow the market, and 
this lays the whole body of proprietors of companies 
open to the manipulations of the skilful market operator. 
Movements of shares are too frequent now when infor- 
mation has not left the directors' bands. This being 
eo, there is only one inference to draw, and that is, 
that the directors themselves make use of favourable 
information to increase their holdings, and if unfavour- 
able, to clear their stock, while the rest of the share- 
holders " fall in " on both occasions. And this is 
what shareholders pay directors' fine fees for year in and 
year out. , 



Review oe Reviews, 
April 15, l'JOO. 



The Financial History of the Month. 



533 



The Bank of Australasia. 

In our last we referred to the cabled figures regarding 
the Bank of Australasia, which have been supplemented 
~by later wires, which are compared below: — 

October, April, October, 



Deposits . . 

Cash and securities 
Bills and advances 
Net profit . . 
Dividend per annum 



1898. 

£ 

12,456,003 

4,779,674 

12,477,820 

54,147 

6 



1899. 1899. 

£ £ 

.13,276,304 ..13,646,325 

5,082,445 .. 5,795,920 



Amount carried forward 9,970 . 



.12,796,682 

66,282 

7 

10,282 



.13,415,416 

127,870 

8 

9,970 



This bank is in a very favourable position. The old 
rivalry with the Union appears to have been knocked 
completely on the head by this last balance-sheet. The 
Union has not advanced in a similar manner, and all 
this only tends to show that high positions are often lost 
by an overreaching policy. Generally speaking, all the 
Bank balance-sheets which are now due will show much 
improvement. The Royal will probably pay an in- 
creased dividend, while two others are expected to 
make announcements more favourable than in previous 
reports. 



II— INSURANCE NEWS and NOTES 

The London underwriters have declined to pay claims 
for the loss of the gold " annexed " by the Transvaal 
Government at the outbreak of the war, and which was 
insured by them against "all risks." If the owners 
cannot recover from the underwriters, probably the 
British Government will admit the claim when the 
settlements are made after the conclusion of the war. 



AUSTRALIAN 

MUTUAL PROVIDENT 

SOCIETY 

HOLDS THE WORLD'S RECORD FOR BONUSES. 



Cash Bonus for One Year, 1898 - £479,742 
Cash Bonuses already divided £8,200,546 



MOST LIBERAL POLICY CONDITIONS. 

MOST ECONOMICAL MANAGEMENT. 
MOST STRINGENT RESERVES. 



EVERY YEAR A BONUS YEAR. 



DIRECTORS OF THE VICTORIA BRANCH : 

The Hon. Sir W. A. Zkal, K.C.M.G., M.L.C., Chairmah. 

James Grick, Esq., J.P., Deputy Chairman. 

The Hon A. Deakin, M.L.A. John Cooes, Esq. 

William Henry Miller, Esq. 



*59 Collins Street, 
Melbourne. 



W. 



J. WALKER, 
Resident Secretart. 



The tremendous strides LifeAssurancein the Australasian 
colonies has made during the past quarter of a century, 
must cause thoughtful men and women to surmise what 
will be the aspect of life assurance in a few more de- 
cades — what will be the position of life offices in another 
50 years? The writer, having lately been musing on this 
problem, ventures to put forth the theory that in less 
than the next half century the man or woman unin- 
sured will be deemed a prodigy and an object of won- 
derment and perplexity to his or her fellows. The 
thought brings up a vista of time when parents will 
assure their offspring in as natural a sequence as thev 
now have them christened. — The A.M.P. " Messenger." 



Some idea of the hold the Mutual Life Insurance Co. 
of New York has upon the British public may be 
gathered from the fact that fifty British policy-holders 
in that company carry a total risk of £1,058,400, or an 
average risk of over £21,168 for each person. One 
policy is for £50,000. 



The fifty-first annual meeting of the Australian 
Mutual Provident Society will be held on May 18, at 
the hall of the Young Men's Christian Association, 
Pitt-street, Sydney, for the purpose of receiving the 
report of the directors for the year ending December 
31, 1899; electing two directors in lieu of A. W. Weeks, 
Esq., and J. T. Walker, Esq., who are eligible for re- 
election; electing an auditor in place of Neville Dow- 
ling, Esq., who is eligible for re-election; and for de- 
claring the amount of divisible surplus for the year. 
Attention is drawn to the bye-laws of the society, 
providing that no member is eligible for election as a 
director or auditor unless thirty clear days' notice, 
in writing, of his candidature has been given to the 
secretary before such meeting. 



'^ EQUITABLE LIFE 
ASSURANCE SOCIETY 

OF THE UNITED STATES. 
Established 1859. 

FINANCIAL POSITION, JAN. J, J899. 

saurance in Fore* ... £205,667,731 
assets ... ... ... £53,826,937 

increase in Assets during 

1898 £4,477,760 

"oirplus £11,918,852 

"«.id to Policy-holders since 

organisation ... ... £63,000,000 



Send for partioular* regarding the 
GUARANTEED CASH VALUE POLICY, 

V&lrh give* all the benefit* and advantage* of previous form* of poll- 
•> :» »nd in addition GUARANTEES Surrender Value* both In CASH 
■v«! PAID-UP Ausuraiice, the amount* of which (together with th« 
amount* of the LOANS which are granted under this form) iacr 
year by year and are WRITTEN IN THE POLICY. 



MELBOURNE BRANCH, EQUITABLE BUILDING, COLLINS ST. 

* c 

LOCAL DIRECTORS (with power to i»*ue Polioie* and pay Claim*) 

HON JAMES HALKOL'R, M L.C , Chairman. 

REGINALD BRIGHT, ESQ. A. R. BLACKWOOD, ESQ. 

MANAGER FOR VICTORIA • O. G. McOOLL. 

itKN. MANAGER FOR AUSTRALASIA • C. CARLISLE TAYLO*. 



Application* invited for Agenci** in Victoria where not reprw«Bt«4. 



534 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



CITY MUTUAL LIFE 
ASSURANCE SOCIETY 



LIMITED. 



ESTABLISHED 1879. 



HEAD OFFICE: HUNTER, BLIOH AND CASTLEREAGH STS, 
SYDNEY. 

BRANCHES AND AGENCIES EVEBTWHEBB. 



The Most Liberal and Progressive 
Life Office in Australia. 

GEO. CROWLEY, Ma.n« e .r. 



Thi N on -Forfeiture Office. 



TUB 



ATIONAL IVIUTUAL 
LIFE I 



ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALASIA LIMITED 

•IxMLtna Dimotok, Colonel J. M. Tsmpmton, C.U.Q., F.I.A. 
actuary, E. J. Stock, A.I.A. 

INSPBOTO*, J. B. OULISON, F.I. A., F.F.A 



First Office in the World 

MJ TO APPLY SURRENDER VALUE 

To prevent Policies lapsing. 



Largest, Wealthiest, Most Progressive 
Victorian Life Office. 



All Profits divided amongst the Policy Holders. 
!J3ERAL CONDITIONS. ABSOLUTE SECURITY. 

MONEY TO LEND 

On Gied Mortgage or on Credit Foncier Terms. 



HEAD OFFICES- 
COLLINS AND QUEEN STREETS, KELBOURJft 



The steamer Mortlake, bound from London to Mel- 
bourne, broke her tail^ shaft on her voyage from the- 
Cape. The steamer Kolya picked the disabled vessel 
up on March 27. about 104 miles S.S.E. of Kangaroo 
Island. A very heavy sea was running, but a line wae- 
got aboard, and the vessel was safely towed into Large 
Bay, South Australia. 



In the February number of " The Index " (London 
and New York) appears a very interesting article on 
the Phoenix Assurauee Company, one of the oldest and 
wealthiest offices in the world. The company was in- 
stituted in 1781 by a number of prominent sugar re- 
finers of London, and even in those early times had to 
face considerable competition. Still, it held its own 
by careful management, and when thirteen years old, 
had to face a heavy claim, arising through a fire at 
Ratcliffe, in the east end of London, and which cost 
the company £50,000 — a sum that was promptly paid, 
thus proving the resources of the company. Some large 
claims, satisfactorily met, have been the great fire at 
St. Thomas', in 1807, £200,000, and £216,000 in the 
Hamburg fire of 1842. In 1846 the fire at St. John's, 
Newfoundland, caused losses to the company of £114,000, 
and which was repeated in 1892 with a loss of £124,000. 
The wharf fire in Tooley-street, London, in 1861, took 
the sum of £130,000 out of the Phoenix funds. Other 
large losses were: — Chicago, in 1870, £100,000; Boston, 
1872, £50,000; Trinidad, in 1895, £42,000; and £54,500 
for a fire at Guayaquil in 1896, and, coming nearer home, 
in the great Flinders-lane fire at Melbourne, £750,000. 
The total amount paid away in losses by this " Giant," 
since its inception, is over £24,000,000 sterling. ^ 



£ 



The figures of the New York Life Insurance Coin- 
any for 1899 are to hand. The principal items are aa 
bllows: — Income for the year, £10,775,980; expenditure, 
£6.737,730; leaving a balance of £4,038,249. The total 
funds reach £48,652,000, of which £8,525,820 is the sur- 
plus above the valuation, as ascertained by the New 
York Superintendent of Insurance, on a four per cent. 
I m.<= is. The new business of the year amounted to- 
£41,627,383, the total amount of insurance in force 
at December 31, 1899, being £218,492,178, spread over 
437,776 policies, averaging nearly £500 per policy. 



A fire, which, but for the prompt action of the fire 
brigade, might have been attended with serious re- 
sults, occurred at the flour mills of Parsons Bros, and 
Co., Kent-street, Sydney, on March 29. It broke out 
in one of the hoppers, and was caused, it is supposed, 
by a spark from the engine. The damage done was 
principally by water. The insurance on the mills and 
their contents amounts to £46,000. 



The Melbourne Metropolitan Fire Brigade has been 
reinforced by a decided acquisition to its strength in a 
new fire engine constructed by Shand, Mason and Co., 
which is larger than any engine in use in London, 
with the exception of the floating engines ou the Thames. 
It is a " double vertical " one, with twin double acting 
twin cylinders, with a corresponding set of pumps. 
Its pumping capacity exceeds 1,000 gallons a minute, 
and can force a two-inch stream to a height of 200 
feet. It works up to a steam pressure of 125 lbs. to the 
square inch. The engine is provided with five out- 
lets for delivery hose. The tests were carried out by 
the Chief Officer of the London Metropolitan Brigade, 
and fulfilled all requirements demanded of it. 



It is estimated that the total annual loss disbursements. 
made by fire insurance companies doing business in> 
the United States are at the rate of £72,000 per day. 



Review op Reviews, 
April 15, 1900. 



The Financial History of the Month. 



535 



The steamer Elingamite, when off Disaster Bay at 
11 o'clock on the 7th inst., saw a steamer showing signals 
of distress. It proved to be the s.s. Karawera, and it 
was found that she had broken her shalft during bad 
weather. The Elingamite took her in tow to Sydney. 



A common sense view of the position life assurance 
companies should take up with regard to the assurance 
of members of the contingents to South Africa, is that 
of the Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United 
State*, as set forth in " The Equitable Kecord ":— 

" It is not the business of a Mutual Life Assurance 
Society to undertake such a risk, unless the action is 
approved by the body of its members. In the assurance 
of an entire contingent about to face in a body a foe 
celebrated for their deadly accuracy in the use of the 
rifle, there is altogether too much of a pure 'gamble.' 
Data are unattainable which could determine with 
any approach to precision the cost of the risk. A 
contingent of men might return from the present war 
unscathed, or they might be ' cut to pieces ' in one 
engagement. One contingent has already suffered most 
severely, and it is quite impossible to forecast what 
will be the ultimate fate of bodies of men whose con- 
spicuous gallantry has entitled them to be utilised for 
the most hazardous duties. 

" That the representatives of such men should be pro- 
vided for seems unnecessary to be stated. The ques- 
tion is, who should bear the burden of such provision? 
And the only reasonable answer is, not any particular 
section of the public as represented by the members of 
one or other of the assurance companies, but the pub- 
lic as a whole— that is, the State." 



The near approach of the Paris Exhibition has led 
to the discussion by British and French underwriters 
of the rate to be charged on exhibits there. The re- 
cent boycott of the Exhibition caused the more timid 
underwriters to hold aloof, it being argued that a large 
exhibition invariably brings a rush of provincial labour 
into the city, and if this cannot find a remunerative 
outlet, serious trouble may ensue. The rates suggested 
were somewhat prohibitive, but this will probably be 
relaxed. If not, so closely is the great business of 
insurance allied to commerce, a serious position would 
be created for the Exhibition managers. Exhibitors 
would not run the risk of sending their goods uncovered, 
and the success of the undertaking would be seriously 
impaired. It is hinted that a better understanding will 
have been come to, and that the show will not be un- 
duly hampered on this score. 



The steamer Glenelg, engaged in the G/ippsland trade, 
while on her voyage from Lakes Entrance to Melbourne, 
foundered in a heavy storm on March 26. Out of thirty- 
three persons on board, only three were saved. These 
put on in the life-boat, and after fifty hours of buffet- 
ing by wind and wave, succeeded in making the shore 
in safety. Most of the others put off in the long-boat, 
and all perished. This boat was picked up later on 
the beach, and on examination it was found that the 
plugwasnotin; in fact, it was fastened so that it could 
not reach the plug-hole. This evidently accounted for 
the loss of all its occupants. An inquest was held at 
Bairnsdale on the bodies of the victims, and evidence 
was produced to show that the Glenelg was seaworthy, 
and the jury, in their verdict, stated that there was no 
evidence to show what caused the leakage that led to 
the vessel foundering. 



The s.s. Gulf of Taranto, of the Gulf Line, while mak- 
ing for Port Melbourne on the 2nd inst., ran aground off 
Altona Bay, near Williamstown, at about six o'clock in 
the morning. She entered the Heads at about two a.m., 
and was taken in charge by Pilot Lilley. She was drawing 
about 23 feet forward, and as this draught was too deep 



ATLAS ASSURANCE 
COMPANY. 

ESTABLISHED IN THE REIGN OF QBOBOE III. 



Subscribed Capital 
Paid-up Capital 
Total Assets 



*^> 



BRANCHES 

AT 

SYDNEY, 

BRISBANK, 

ADELAIDE, 

LAUNCESTON. 




£assurawck~ 




£1,200,000 

£144,000 

£2,342,134 



AGENCIES 

IN 

ALL 

PRINCIPAL 

TOWNS. 



HEAD OFFICE FOR AUSTRALIA, 406 COLLINS STREET, 
MELBOURNE. 

THOB. B. BILL, Managm. 

UNION 

INSURANCE SOCIETY 

OF CANTON LTD. 

(MARINE). 

ESTABLISHED 1836. 



Subscribed Capital $2,500,000 

Paid-Up $500,000 

Reserve Fund $1,36C,00O 

Accumulated Funds $4,731,497 

Including £210,440 Sterling, Invested in 
London and Melbourne. 

This Society offers special inducements and facilities 
for Marine Insurances, and has made a name for prompt 
and liberal settlement of all claims. 

Bonus is paid annually out of profits to contributors of 
business, an. I for the List six years has averaged twenty- 
four per cent. 

Local Commute 
E. Fanning, Esq. Jab CJrick, Esq. Geo. Fajmairn, Es«. 



BROKEN HILL CHAMBERS, 31 QUEEN ST., MELBOURNE. 

J. THOS. WOODS, Acting Agent. 

Sydney and Brisbane: Messrs. fiibbs, Brigfet and Co. 
Adelaide: Messrs. Nan ki veil and (':.. 



53 6 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 



THI 



COLONIAL MUTUAL 
=1 FIRE I 

INSURANCE COMPANY LIMITED. 



FIRE 
AOCIDENT . 

IMPLOYER'8 
LIABILITY 

FIDELITY 

GUARANTEE 

PLATE-GLASS 
BREAKAGE 

MARINE. 



Insurance. 



OFFICES. 

MELBOURNE— 60 Market Street. 

SYDNEY— 78 Pitt Street. 

ADELAIDE— 71 King William Street. 

BRISBANE— Creek Street. 

PERTH— Barrack Street. 

HOBART— Collins Street. 

LONDON— St. Michael's Alley, Cornhill, E.C. 

WM. L. JACK, 

Manage* 



CITIZENS' 
LIFE ASSURANCE CO. 

LIMITED. 



HEAD OFFICE— 

COMPANY'S BUILDING, CASTLEREACH AND MOOR STS., 
SYDNEY, N.S.W. 

Branches : Melbourne, Adelaide, Brisbane, Perth 

(W.A.), Hobart, and Wellington (N.Z.) 

With Superintendences and Agencies in all the principal Cities and 

Towns throughout the Colonies. 



POINTS OF THE '99 REPORT. 

Annual Premium Income, £291,759 Sterling. 

New Ordinary Branch Assurances Issued, 

£1,254,778. 

(Exclusive of the Company's vast Industrial business.) 

In the Company's Ordinary Branch Every Year 
is a Bonus Year. 

The fact that the Company's Policy Holders 

Number Upwards of 206,000 attests 

its popularity. 



f All kinds of Induitrial and Ordinary Assurance transacted and the 
most approved forms of Policies issued on the lives of men, women 
and children 

1 Call or write to any of the Company's Chief Offices, as above, for 
•descriptive insurance literature. 



for the west channel, she was taken up the south channel. 
The night was thick and misty, with rain falling, and 
the vessel got about five miles out of her course, and 
was travelling at almost right angles to her correct 
course, at the time she struck. Fortunately her speed 
was slackened, and still more fortunate was the point 
at which she went aground having a sandy bottom. A 
short distance nearer Williamstown are some dangerous 
rocky reefs. The steam tugs Albatross, Eagle, and 
Racer all made repeated but unsuccessful attempts at 
towing the vessel off. After lightening her cargo con- 
siderably, she was then got off, and taken into dock 

for examination. 

* » » » 

The steamer Remus, which was one of the wool fleet 
from the colonies last season, has been lost at ■ea. 
with thirteen lives. The story of the wreck received 
by the Canadian mailboat is a most harrowing one. 
While in the North Sea the vessel was overtaken by 
a heavy gale, and was eventually driven on the rocki 
off the Danish coast. The Remus, which had a full 
cargo of wheat, was dashed about with such violence 
that she very quickly broke her back, and parted amid- 
ships. Three of the crew volunteered to try and get 
a rope ashore, but were drowned in the attempt. Some 
others tried to reach land in a boat, but it capsized, 
and five were drowned before they got clear of the 
wreck. By this time the hull was submerged, and the 
survivors had to take refuge in the rigging in bitterly cold 
weather. Another effort was made to reach land by two 
more of the crew, but they also were drowned. During the 
night Captain Williams became delirious, and shot nim- 
self with his revolver. All the men were more or leas 
exhausted, and two fell from the rigging during the 
night and were drowned. The remaining fourteen 
passed another terrible twenty-four hours, when they 
were fortunately observed by the steamer Nordia, and 
were rescued. 



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74 SWANSTON STREET, 
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Melbourne. 



Prialed »y Review Printing Co. Proprietary Ltd., 1G9 Queen Street, Melbourne. 



April 15, 1900. 



The Review of Reviews. 



537 



THE QUEEN OF AUSTRALASIAN COLLEGES I 



/ISbetboMst SLabtes' College, 

HAWTHORN, VICTORIA. 



PRESIDENT SEV. W. H. FITCHETT, B.A., LL.O. HEAD MASTER - J. REFORD CORR, M.A., LL.B. 



THE COLLEGE consists of stately buildings (on 
which nearly £40,000 has been spent), stand- 
ing in Spacious Grounds, and furnished with 
the latest and most perfect educational appli- 
ances. It includes Gymnasium, Art Studio, 
Swimming Bath, Tennis Court, &c. 

THE STAFF is University-trained throughout, 
and includes Six University Graduates, making 
it the strongest Teaching Staff of any Girls' 
School in Australia. 

SUCCESS IN STUDIES. -At the recent Ma- 
triculation- Examination, thirteen candidates 
passed out of fourteen sent up by the Col- 
lege, with an average of over 'eight passes 
for each student. In three divisibns of the 
Honour Lists — English, French and German, 
and Science — all the other girls' schools put to- 
gether obtained eight first-classes. The 
Methodist Ladies' College obtained' three, in- 
cluding the first place in English and History, 
and one of the only two first-classes awarded 
in Science. 



ACCOMPLISHMENTS.— On the College Staff 
are to be found the very best Teachers in 
Music, Singing, and all forms of Art. 

BOARDERS are assured of wise training in so- 
cial habits, perfect comfort, refined com- 
panions, and a happy College life, 

RELIGIOUS TRAINING.— The College is Chris- 
tian, without being sectarian. Each Boarder 
attends the Church * to which her parents be- 
long, and is under the Pastoral Charge of its 
Minister. Regular Scripture- teaching by the 
President. 

BOARDERS FROM A DISTANCE.— -G i r 1 3 

are attracted by the reputation of the College, 
and by the pre-eminent advantages in Health, 
Happiness, and Education it offers, from all 
the Seven Colonies. 

SPECIAL STUDENTS.— Young Ladies are re- 
ceived who wish to pursue Special Lines of 
Study without taking up the full course of or- 
dinary school work. 



"The Young Man" (London) says: — "British readers will pro"bably have but little idea of the national 
importance of- this institution. It has earned the reputation of being one of the best High Schools for girls no4 
in Australia only, but in all the world. ''Its students are drawn from all the seven colonies. The gardens and 
grounds in summer are like a fairy vision ; the art studios, drawingrooms, schoolrooms, baths, and tennis courti 
combine culture, reoreation'*and refinement with ^homeliness and comfort. Above all, religioue training and 
personal sympathy make the College a truly ' ideal institution. ' " 



SEND A POSTCARD FOR COLLEQE HANDBOOK, WITH PHOTOGRAPHS. 



53^ 



'I he Review of Reviews. 



April 15, 1900. 




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April 15, 1900 



The Review of Reviews. 



539 



GEORGE ROBERTSON & CO. Proprietary Ltd., 

384-390 LITTLE COLLINS ST., MELBOURNE. 



General Literature. 

Maekay, Angus, The Australian Agriculturist; reduced 

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Headlam, J. Wycliffe, Bismarck and the Founda- 
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YOUNG AUSTRALIA. A magazine of adventure, 
travels, sport and pastimes. 136 l/irge pages. Is. 
Published quarterly. Yearly subscription, 4s. post free. 
Cheapest and best reading for boys published. 



The Review of Reviews. 



April 15. tqoo. 



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